Marea Zeita Bendis

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Medalion ce reprezinta pe zeita Bendis, descoperit la Gradistea Muncelului, datare dupa anul 79 e.n.

Marea zeita Bendis (Bhendis, Mendis, Mhendis) era divinitatea feminina din pantenonul nord-tracic care se ocupa cu destinele oamenilor, asemeni Ursitoarelor.

Numele zeitei este compus din radacina teonimului indo-european bhend care inseamna “a lega” sau “a indoi”, de unde provine si cuvantul anglo-saxon bind sau germanicul binden.

Din aceasta mcia dar pretioasa idee, putem deduce cu usurinta ca unul din apelativele primordiale ale zeitei era de “Zeita destinului” sau “Zeita Tesatoarelor”, Zeita Sortii”, “Zeita Ursitoare”.

Ea, asemeni Ursitoarelor, se ocupa cu destinele oamenilor, indo-europenii fiind prin excelenta adoratorii credintei in predestinare.

Este foarte probabil ca dupa cucerirea romana a Daciei, Bendis sa fi fost asimilata de zeita Diana (Artemis la greci).

Bendis mai era si zeita legaturilor matrimoniale, dragostei si sentimentului amoros, asemeni zeitei scandinave Freya, Afroditei elene, zeitei Albina a etruscilor, Ishtar a asiro-babilonienilor, Inanna a sumerienilor, Dzydzilelyaa a vechilor poloni, Prende a albanezilor, Shiva a slavilor sau Venus a romanilor.

Toate casatoriile se oficiau in numele ei, sub binecuvantarea ei divina.

Cultul zeitei Bendis a fost preluat si de greci, devenind cult statal la Atena inca din secolul V i.e.n. Era adorata in special in timpul ceremoniilor numite Bendideia cand aveau loc doua ceremonii etnice: una formata din traci si alta din atenieni.

Templul zeitei Bendis, asociata de atenieni cu Artemis, se numea Bendideion si era situat pe dealul Munychia, situat in partea Atenei numita Pireu, colina ce are inaltime de aprox 86 de m. Astazi poarta numele de Kastella. Mai tarziu, dupa secolul II i.e.n. mai putem gasi un templu al zeitei pe tarmul vestic al Hebrului, in Balcani.
Cultul ei este atestat si in Asia Mica, mai exact in Bithinia, sau chiar in Egiptul Ptolemeic.

Pe reliefuri si statuete, zeita Bendis este reprezentata purtand vesminte trace si boneta traca (frigiana, frigienii erau de neam tracic). Uneori, zeita are o sulita in mana stanga si o cupa in cea dreapta. Pe unele monezi, ea apare fie tinand doua sulite si un pumnal, fie doua torte sau o torta si o patera.

Bendis mai avea si diverse atribute cum ar fi vanatoarea, dar aparea si sub forma unei zeite a Lunii, asemeni Hecatei.

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Bendis – Bustul de bronz de la Piatra Rosie, infatisand-o pe zeita cu sanii mari, ceea ce reprezinta caracterul fertil dar si amoros al zeitei.

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Bendis din Tanagra, localitate situata in Attica, la nord de Atena (figurina din teracota, secolul IV i.e.n.)

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Stela votiva a zeitei Bendis descoperita la Pireu (sec IV i.e.n.)

Articol scris de Kogaion

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Geto-Dacians “The most Brave and Fair Thracian tribe”

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More and more voices claiming to represent “history” of our multi-millennial nation, evokes an echo in what is increasingly felt and heard, that the Geto-Dacians were polygamist people, eating meat and the worst of all, were high consumers of alcohol.

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To demonstrate once for all that the Geto-Dacian, Germanic, Celtic and Baltic people, like other Thracian tribes, were not consumers of alcohol, just because they diddnt knew any alcoholic beverage outside of “The Drink of Gods” “called mead (Hydromel in French, in Spanish Hidromiel, Idromele in Italian, hydromel in Portuguese, English Mead, miód in Russian, Polish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Med in Ukrainian, German Met, Medovina in ceho-Slovak, Serbo-Croatian and Slovenia-ur Ezti in Basque, Sima in Finnish, Hydromeli in classical Latin, Midus in Latvian) we will quote an important historical source of the I century AD.

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Valkyrie Bearing a Drinking Horn

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Ninth-century picture stone from the island of Gotland, Sweden. A valkyrie with a drinking-horn greets Odin as he arrives at Valhalla astride Sleipnir, his eight-legged horse, on which he will fight at Ragnarok.

The most important evidence we find in “Geography” of Strabon, specifically in the Book VII of Chapter III:

“[…] Greeks considered that Getae were a Thracian tribe. They lived on both banks of Danube, I mean both Getae and Mysians as well. Mysians were Thracians too but in present time, their name is Moesians; the origins of Mysians are from Moesians, which live among Lydians, Phrygians and Trojans.

Phrygians themselves are Bryges (Briges), a Thracian tribe, like Mygdones, Bebrycians, Bithyni, Thyni and maybe Mariandynii too.

All of them left quick Europe, but Mysians remained on place together with the other Thracians.

My opinion is that Poseidonios correctly assumed that Homer designates with this name, Mysians, in Europe (I mean those from Thrace) when he says:

His eyes light ii returned back to see

The Country of Thracians populated by those who curb sirepii,

And Mysians who fight each other from close distance. […]

Poseidonios says that Mysians are out of meat products from a particular religious faith, just because they don’t grow animals. They feed with honey, milk and cheese, living alone, as they are called pious men from gods and capnobates.

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There are Thracians which live without girls, they are called Founders. They are considered saints, because of their honor and live without fear. Poet Homer called them “holy milkers of mare, which drink milk, without life w and the most correct people”. They are nicknamed “without life” especially because they live without girls, Homer himself say about widowhood that is only a half life as he called the house of Protesilaos “half” just because he was a widow man.

Mysians are called “fighters from closer distance” because they are undefeated and excellent warriors. In the book of the XIII chapter (the Iliad) it must be writen “Moesians, fighters from closer distance” instead of Mysians (claim Poseidonios) .

But certainly, it is foolhardy to change the text of Homer, considered good across so many years. Indeed, it’s much more believable that they were appointed from the beginning Mysians and now they changed the name in Moesians. The epithet “without life” could be rather in the sense of “widow” than the “unfeeder” or “with houses on carts. […]

And the practice of Pythagoras which say to abstain from meat, remained for them as a dictation from Zamolxis. […]

About the information that tell us that:

“Shortly Deceneu himself was considered as a God, as I said when I talked about Zamolxis. And in a sign of obedience, Getae people were convinced to cut vine and to live without wine […]” we cant specify the exact location for these “Getae” as we dont know if the text make reference to Tarabostes or Comati.

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Taraboste (Dacian nobleman)

Probably a part of Geto-Dacian nobility go negative way, but just because of dirty Greek and Roman influence, or perhaps just because the Geto-Dacians who remained in the fortresses on the Black Sea to administer the territories conquered by the emperor Burebista began this shameful practice, a humiliating practice for the northern tribes of Thracians.

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Dacian Comatus (Capillat)

I’d like to mention that the Odrysians and other southern Thracian tribes, drink wine and take various hallucinogens substances such as magic mushrooms, hemp (weed, cannabis), or even oriental opioids.

All these facts came later, due to influence of Greek and later the Roman influence, and various mythraic influences from Orient.

Therefore, the Geto-Dacians and Moesians, Carpiani and Costobocii, and all the “barbarian” tribes from the north of Danube, diddnt consume alcohol, but only mead as all “barbarians” from North. These Tendencious statements released against our ancestors are just some attacks which have a single intention: degeneration of our great and divine ancestors, the Geto-Dacians, “The most brave and fair Thracian tribe” !

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Thracian warrior

Our polygam enemies, large consumers of alcohol and drugs, seem to be envious on our ancestors and their sacred lives, as well about their divine origin.

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Decebal

Article written by Kogaion

Hidromelul (Hrana Zeilor-Miedul)

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In epoca preistorica mierea a fost singura substanta dulce concentrata folosita pe scara larga in alimentatie iar din cercetarile arheologice hidromelul (miedul,vinul de miere) a fost prima bautura alcoolica fermentata cu mult inaintea bauturilor obtinute din fructele pomilor fructiferi,vita de vie si cereale.

Prepararea si folosirea hidromelului este amintita si in scrierile antice geto-dace, celto-germanice, balto-slave, finno-ugrice, babiloniene, egiptene, romane dar si elene.

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Dacia,in care apicultura era dezvoltata folosea mierea si celelalte produse apicole.

Cateva marturii ale istoricilor antichitatii arata ca nivelul de cultura si civilizatie al Tracilor n-a fost egalat in antichitate pe intreg teritoriu European.

Daco-getii s-au desprins din masa triburilor Trace, incepand sa-si contureze un profil de civilizatie distincta pe la inceputul primului mileniu inainte de Cristos.

Cateva marturii ale istoricilor antichitatii arata profilul poporului si folosirea produselor apicole si al hidromelului.

“Posidoniu afirma ca misii,neam Trac din dreapta Dunarii se feresc din cucernicie a manca vietati motiv pentru care nu se atingeau de carnea turmelor lor.Se hranesc insa cu miere,lapte si branza,ducand un trai linistit.”(Straban,Geografia-in jurul anului 25-a.Ch.)

“Lcuitorii din Dacia sunt obisnuiti cu miere cu lapte si fier. “(Ptolemeu,Geografia -in jurul anului 150 p.Ch).

“De acolo am calatorit pe un drum neted, asezat intr-o campie a Banatului si am trecut peste mai multe rauri navigabile, dintre cele mai mari,dupa Istru,era asa-numitul Drecon,apoi Tigas si Tifisas. Pe acestea le-am trecut in barcile de care se foloseau locuitorii de pe malurile raurilor ,iar pe celelalte le-am trecut pe plute, pe care barbarii le poarta in carute, deoarece locurile sunt mlastinoase. Prin sate ni se aducea de mancare si anume in loc de grau,mei,iar in loc de vin,mied dupa cum il numesc localnicii.” (Priscus,sec.V.p.Ch).

Dupa ce marele preot Deceneu, colaboratorul apropiat al regelui Burebista, a poruncit sa se distruga plantatiile de vita de vie si sa nu mai bea vin, poporul (tracii sudici) a continuat sa prepare bere Tracica sau mied intrucat aveau miere din belsug.

Traditia folosirii miedului se pastreaza in continuare la Geto-Dacii romanizati,la proto-romanii din perioada de trecere la feudalism, precum la urmasii populatiei ramanizate din tinuturile romanesti.

Antonio Maria Gratianii spunea pe la 1564 despre moldoveni:

“De vin nu duc lipsa, dar folosesc mult miedul, ca unii ce au miere multa.”

Ca medicament era pretuit ca preventiv impotriva ciumei.

Desi Europa este locul de origine al prepararii hidromelului, astazi doar putin hidromel se produce in Europa de vest.

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In Anglia exista o companie care produce hidromel, in Franta productia industriala nu depaseste 3000 de hectolitri.

Polonia produce doua feluri de hidromel dupa metodele traditionale:

Dwojniac (invechit 5-7 ani) si Trojniac (invechit cel putin 3 ani).

Conform catalogului”wines and vines” (vinuri si vite de vie) in 1970 existau in America de Nord trei companii producatoare.

Marea majoritate a vinurilor de miere este vin cuser.

Hidromelul se poate prepara prin:

1. Metoda Godan (cu maia de struguri)
2. Metoda Derosne si Layens (cu pastura)
3. Metoda Cabas si Ware (cu drojdie de vin)
4. Metoda Jacquemine (fermenti selectivi)

Dupa metoda de preparare hidromelul poate fi:
-sec
-dulce
-sampanizat.

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Preparat in conditii optime respectand tehnologia hidromelul poate concura cu succes vinurile de marca:vinurile de Rin, Champagne, Bordeaux, Xeres, Malaga.

Aceste scurte informatii speram sa va trezeasca curiozitatea si interesul pentru prepararea unei bauturi sanatoase, gustoase si reconfortante.

Bibliografie:
-Maria Teodorescu “Bauturi si preparate din miere” Editura Tehnica Bucuresti,1977.
Prepararea,ingrijirea si obtinerea hidromelului este descrisa la paginile 5-107.
-Eva Cranc,Mierea ,Editura Apimondia,1977-hidromelul este prezentat la paginile 385-400.

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Hidromelul (hrana zeilor)

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In epoca preistorica mierea a fost singura substanta dulce concentrata folosita pe scara larga in alimentatie iar din cercetarile arheologice hidromelul (miedul,vinul de miere) a fost prima bautura alcoolica fermentata cu mult inaintea bauturilor obtinute din fructele pomilor fructiferi,vita de vie si cereale. More