The great Bendis goddess

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Bendis goddess, discovered in Gradistea Muscelului, dated after the 79th b. C.

The great Bendis goddess (Bhendis, Mendis, Mhendis) was the feminine divinity from north-Thracian pantheon which was managing people’s fortunes, like the Fates.

Goddess’ name is build with the indo-European root of bhend, theonym which minds “to relate” or “to bow”, whence it comes also the Anglo-Saxon word bind or the Germanic “binden”.

From this small but precious idea, we can easy deduce that one of the primordial goddess’ appellatives was “Fortune’s Goddess” or “Weaver Goddess”, “Fate’s Goddess”, “The Fate goddess”.

She, as the Fates, was managing people’s fortunes, the indo-Europeans being especially worshipers of the predestination belief.

It is very probably that, after the Dacia’s Roman conquest, Bendis was assimilated by Diana goddess (Artemis at the Greeks).

Bendis was also the goddess of the matrimonial connections, of the love and the amorous feeling, like the Scandinavian goddess Freyja, the Greek Aphrodite, the Etruscan Albina, the Assyrian- Babylonian Ishtar goddess, Sumerian’s Inanna, the “Dzydzilelyaa” of the old Polish, Albanian’s “Prende”, Slave’s “Shiva” or Roman’s Venus.

All the marriages was officiated in her name, under her divine blessing.

The goddess Bendis cult was taken also by Greeks, becoming a stately cult in Athens since the V century b. C. It was adored especially while the ceremonies called “Bendideia” when it was taking place two ethnical ceremonies: one formed by Traces and another by Athenians.

Bendis goddess’ temple, associated by the Athenians with Artemis, was called Bendideia and it was situated on the Munychia hill, situated in Athena’s part called Piraeus, hill that has approximately 86 m highest. Today it is called with the name of Kastella. Later, after the II century b. C. we can find another goddess’ temple on Hebru’s West part, in Balkans.

Her cult was attested also in the Asia Minor, more exactly in Bithynia, or even in the Ptolemaic Egypt.

On statues, Bendis goddess was represented wearing Thracian clothes and the Thracian cap (Phrygian, the Phrygians was from the Thracian race). Sometimes the goddess has a javelin in her left hand and a coup in the right hand. On some coins she appears either keeping two javelins and a dagger, or two torches or a torch and a Patera.

Bends has also other attributes as the hunting, but we were appearing also as a Moon’s goddess, like Hecate.

Bendis – bronze bust from the Piatra Roșie, showing the goddess with big breasts, that means that she represents the fertile and amorous character of the goddess

Bendis from Tanagra, location situated in Attica, in north Athens (terracotta figure, IV century b. C.)

Bendis goddess’ votive star, discovered at Piraeus (IV century b. C.)

By Kogaion

The difficult navigator’s life while Magellan’s voyage (1519-1522)

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Antonio Pigafetta “Notes about the New World”

[…] We eat biscuits, but there are no biscuits, only their dust, mixed with worm pieces, because they have already eaten what was good; it smelled very strongly as mouse urine, and we drink yellow rotted for many days water, and we eat some ox skin; […] skins was very stiff because of the sun, of the rain and the wind.

We let it four or five days in the sea and then we put it on embers and in like this we eat it, and also many times we used to eat wood wool.

The mice were sold with one half of ducat per one and it had not been too much. But after all the misfortunes, this was the worst: the gums was growing at some ones up to the teeth, up and down, that they could not eat in any way… And in this way they were dieing because of this defect.

Nineteen people and the huge had been dead, together with an Indian from the earth of Verzin. Twenty five or thirty people was falling sick, some of them has arms aches, other legs aches or other body parts, in this way a few remained healthy […].

In these three months and twenty days we went almost four thousands leagues without stopping throw this Pacific Sea (it is true that is very quiet, because in this sea we had not storm) without seeing any coast, only two unlived islands, where we did found only birds and trees; we called it The Misfortune Islands. There is far one by the other at two hundreds leagues. We did not found the seabed alongside them, we saw only a lot of sharks […].

With Magellan around the world, Bucharest, the Scientifically Printing house, 1960.

The Charles’s V edict upon the heresy from the Netherlands

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Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I; German: Karl V., Dutch: Karel V, French: Charles Quint, 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Carlos I of Spain, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I in 1556.

“It’s stopped to print, to write, to keep, to sell and buy or to broadcast in churches, on the streets and in other places all the creations printed or written by Martin Luther’s, Ioan Ecolampadius’s, Ulrich Zwingli’s, Martin Butzer’s hand and other heresy’s chieftains, false missionary and founders of the shameless heretic’s sect. […]

We stop, moreover, all the laymen to have discussions or proceedings, opened or hidden, about the Holy Scripture and especially about the questionable and impermeable points and also to read, to teach and to explain the Scripture, outside the ones that has theological studies with certificate from the universities.

We stop, in secret or opened, to preach, to defend them, to repeat themselves or to broadcast the foregoing heretics’ lore. If any of these points is contravened, they will be punished, the ringleaders and the muddling of the public silence and the state accomplishments.

This kind of muddling of the public silence will be punished like this: the men by the sword and the women will be interred in the earth being alive, if they will not insist in their aberrances, if they will be mulish, let them be given to the fire. In both situations, their possessions will be taken in the vault’s use. […]

We stop to be offered refuge, food, clothes, money and to help the ones proved or supposed by heresy in any way. The guilty will be punished the same like themselves heretics.

If someone, although he would not been proved with heresy and aberrance, but against him being a strong supposition, was damned by the ecclesiastical tribunal to abjure the heresy and by the laic tribunal he was damned to public repentance and penitence, and after this it happen to be again supposed by heresy or he looks like he is contaminated by it, even if it was not been proved that he breached or insult in any way the moreover mentioned points, we decree that the one be considered like one who fail again in heresy and, fitting with this, to be punished taking their lives and the possessions, without any hope to mitigate or to honey the moreover mentioned punishment. […]

Everyone who discovery a person contaminated by heresy is indebted to denounce it to the authorities, judgments, bishops or others, arranged for this, on pain of the given punishment fitted with the judgment’s joy. All are also indebted to denounce to the places where there are some kinds of heretics, under the damage to be pushed between the guilt’s complicities and to be punished the same as they will.

The telltale, in case of proving the guilty one, receive a half from the damned possessions if this is not bigger than one hundred of Flemish coins…. . If it is more then this value, he will receive the tenth part from all that is over the sum. […]

Francisc Pall, Camil Muresan,Reading from the Middle Ages’ sources” Bucharest, 1964, p. 246-247.

Fragments from “Praise of folly” (1511, Erasmus from Rotterdam)

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CRITICS AGAINST THE MONKS

“But look others that I bless almost as much as I bless the theologians. There are that called usually monks or abbey men, although no one from this two names do not appropriate, because I do not know if there is someone less believer then the majority of this hypocrite and everywhere you meet horde and so-called lonely […]

People flinch of them like they flinch of the wild animals, and only the meeting with them it is kept as bad sign. However they find that it had not fitting, thinking that the biggest piety it is the same with the blind acknowledge. Their virtue stood in that that do not know the writing and they do not doubt that, when they roar the psalms that they do no understand in the church, the God, the angels and all the heaven’s saints are listening them and they are happy.

Some of them, proud of the slim that they kept in themselves, go and ask alms from door to door with a matchless indecency. You can not escape them anywhere. In inns, carts or ships, they meddle in your soul and they are begging till they bereave an obolus that ought to the true needy.

Like this are the apostle’s descendants, that works up to tread them steps by mess, acknowledge, churlishness and rudeness.

What can be more hilarious then that bigot rules of their …., that punish every little aberrance as a sin that must be atoned? Everything is decided and measured: the noose of the shoe, the color or the broad of the gird, the cloth from which must be made the robe and how many pieces, the broad of the tonsure, the shape and the size of the hood, the hours of sleep […].

But from the highest of those stupidities they raised the laymen eyebrow, even the orders are loathe each other […].

Some of them have shakes when they see money, and better they would touch a asp then to touch any coin. But when we speak about wine or lassies, the saint parents forget about the canon […].

Do you see? I think that the monks are indebt with me up to the lips, because, without having any merit than to tyrannize the populace with superstitions and them unremitting jangle, they were imaginary climbing near the Paul and Anton saints.

Let blow off this charlatan of that the appreciation for my beneficence it was only a sham. Pious on extern, inside they are matchless nasty.”

(“Praise of folly or speech about the praise of the stupidity” translated by Robert Adam, Antet Printing house, 1995, p 91-101)

THE CRITIC AGAINST SELLING THE INDULGENCIES

“What can I say about the ones of their mind which caress with the belief in that lying sin’s forgiveness? They measure the terms of the Purgatory like using a clock, accounting without fearing of any mistake, as in a abacus, the centuries, the years, the months, the days… Look, for example, a merchant, a soldier, a judge that thinks that, throwing away a little coin emanated from a lot of pillages, it had been forgiven all their sins from the entire life; that so many swearing overrides, so many salacity, so many boozing, fights, crimes, cheating, wiles and betrayals can be overbought, by an arrangement, and atoned in that way that they fell themselves justified to start again others misdeeds.”

“Praise of folly or speech about the praise of the stupidity” translated and notes by Stephan Bezdechi, Bucharest, 1959, p. 61

The great Bendis goddess

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Bendis goddess, discovered in Gradistea Muscelului, dated after the 79th b. C.

The great Bendis goddess (Bhendis, Mendis, Mhendis) was the feminine divinity from north-Thracian pantheon which was managing people’s fortunes, like the Fates.

Goddess’ name is build with the indo-European root of bhend, theonym which minds “to relate” or “to bow”, whence it comes also the Anglo-Saxon word bind or the Germanic “binden”.

From this small but precious idea, we can easy deduce that one of the primordial goddess’ appellatives was “Fortune’s Goddess” or “Weaver Goddess”, “Fate’s Goddess”, “The Fate goddess”.

She, as the Fates, was managing people’s fortunes, the indo-Europeans being especially worshipers of the predestination belief.

It is very probably that, after the Dacia’s Roman conquest, Bendis was assimilated by Diana goddess (Artemis at the Greeks).

Bendis was also the goddess of the matrimonial connections, of the love and the amorous feeling, like the Scandinavian goddess Freyja, the Greek Aphrodite, the Etruscan Albina, the Assyrian- Babylonian Ishtar goddess, Sumerian’s Inanna, the “Dzydzilelyaa” of the old Polish, Albanian’s “Prende”, Slave’s “Shiva” or Roman’s Venus.

All the marriages was officiated in her name, under her divine blessing.

The goddess Bendis cult was taken also by Greeks, becoming a stately cult in Athens since the V century b. C. It was adored especially while the ceremonies called “Bendideia” when it was taking place two ethnical ceremonies: one formed by Traces and another by Athenians.

Bendis goddess’ temple, associated by the Athenians with Artemis, was called Bendideia and it was situated on the Munychia hill, situated in Athena’s part called Piraeus, hill that has approximately 86 m highest. Today it is called with the name of Kastella. Later, after the II century b. C. we can find another goddess’ temple on Hebru’s West part, in Balkans.

Her cult was attested also in the Asia Minor, more exactly in Bithynia, or even in the Ptolemaic Egypt.

On statues, Bendis goddess was represented wearing Thracian clothes and the Thracian cap (Phrygian, the Phrygians was from the Thracian race). Sometimes the goddess has a javelin in her left hand and a coup in the right hand. On some coins she appears either keeping two javelins and a dagger, or two torches or a torch and a Patera.

Bends has also other attributes as the hunting, but we were appearing also as a Moon’s goddess, like Hecate.

Bendis – bronze bust from the Piatra Roșie, showing the goddess with big breasts, that means that she represents the fertile and amorous character of the goddess

Bendis from Tanagra, location situated in Attica, in north Athens (terracotta figure, IV century b. C.)

Bendis goddess’ votive star, discovered at Piraeus (IV century b. C.)

By Kogaion

Judaism in the time of Jesus

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In the age’s first century Palestine was occupied by Romans. In this age the Jewish religion was composed of many religious communities (sects).

The Sadducees’ aristocratically cast is the best representation from all. The Great Priests from the Temple of Jerusalem was recruited from this sacerdotal cast.

About member’s number, on the first place it is the Pharisee’s group, between this being selected the Jewish rabbis.

A part from the Sadducees was promoting the belief in a Messiah who will have deliverer role for Jewish. It is important to remark that Christ belong to this Jewish group.

Another Jewish group it was represented by the Zealots. They has the origin in Galilee’s earth and beside the religious ideology, they was asking for emancipation under the roman occupation of the entire Palestine, having character of paramilitary group, terrorist (attempt, armed wars, attacks upon the Roman guards etc).

Alongside the Sadducees, the Zealots was waiting for a prophet to came and to preach to the Jewish, motivating them at revolts against Romans, for emancipation. This Zealots’ Messiah would be the chief of the revolts against Romans.

This messiah character, in Zealots’ view was a prophetic one; by means of the prophetic religion succeeding to institute revolutionary mentality to the Jewish that was in servitude.

The community of the ones baptized by the John the Baptizer was representing another field of the Jewish religion, these having a certain connection with the Sadducee, this fact it is easy to understand from the John the Baptizer’s canonization by the Jewish-cretins in three big celebrations: The Saint John the Baptizer’s Synod (7th of January), John the Baptizer’s born (24th of June) and the Cutting of John the Baptizer’s head (29th of August).

John was Elisabeth’s son, which was Mary’s cousin, Jesus’ mother. John Baptizer’s father was the rabbi Pharisee Zachariah. In this way, Jesus’ sect was influenced by Sadducees and Pharisee. As a legitimacy of the Christ’s sect, we have as a prove the fact that John the Baptizer was waiting for the Jesus Christ’s coming, having messianic and prophetical role.

Finally, another Judaism’s field, was the one of the … , which were living isolated following some fanatical Judaist principles, represented by Moses. They were excluding the women from their religion and they belief in the soul’s undead and the sinner’s punish.

In sfarsit, o alta ramura a iudaismului, era cea a esenienilor, care traia izolata dupa niste principii fanatice ale iudaismului, reprezentat de Moise. Acestia excludeau femeile din comunitatea lor si credeau in nemurirea sufletului si pedepsirea pacatosilor de orice fel. They was also waiting for a Messiah, which will emancipate them by the Roman domination, and which will make the Jehovah – Adonai – Hosts –Eloah – Shaddai’s Imperium. (epithets for the supreme Jewish divinity, wrong translated in Jewish – Christianity as God.

This historical fact it is confirmed by the Qumram discovery of the Manuscripts from the Death Sea, in the year 1947.

By Kogaion

Jordanes (about Burebista)

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“Then, while Burebista’s reign at the Goths, Deceneus came in Gothia, the time when Sylla sized power at Roma. Receiving Deceneu, Burebista gave him almost a regal authority.

As his piece of advice, the Goths started to devastate German’s mucks, which were dominated by the Francs…

Telling this and many others with art to the Goths, Deceneus has became in them eyes a miraculous creature, as he managed not only the common men, but even the kings, because then he chosen between them the more important and wisest men and he taught them the theology, he advised them to pay honor to certain divinities and sanctuaries, making them priests and giving them the name of “pilleati”, because, as I believe, having the heads covered with a tiara, which we call with another term “pilleus”, they has made sacrifices.

For the rest of the folk he ruled the roast to be called “capillati”, name that the Goths remember till today in their songs, because they gave them a big consideration.

After Deceneus’ dead, they had, almost in the same veneration, Comosicus, because he was as ingenious as Deceneu was.

He was considered as king, as supreme priest, as high bloke too, because of his aptness and he was making justice for his folk as the last instance.

After he left the life, has ascending to the throne, as Goths’ king, Coryllus, which has led 40 years his folks from Dacia.”

Burebista statue in Orăştie

Burebista statue in Călăraşi

Burebista statue in București

By Kogaion