In 1173, the medieval Navarrese adventurer Benjamin of Tudela, in his long travel from Spain to Holy Land, pass through Italy and Greece. When he arrive in the Greek city of Zeitun-Zetounion “Ζητούνιον” (Lamia “Λαμία” from today), he note:

“Here begin the land of Great Walachia (Vlahia). The inhabitants are called vlachs. With the speed of deers, they descend into the Greek (Byzantine) Empire to kill and to plunder. Nobody can attack them through war, even an emperor or a king can’t rule over them. They don’t live under christian traditions and they give themselves jewish names, for that some say they are jews and they peel Christians, instead of killing, as they do with greeks.”

“The origins of Aromanians” by Theodor Capidan and Constantin Noe

Ethnology printing House, Bucharest 2008