Elements of barbarian Latin language

1 Comment

In order to have a better understanding of the characteristics of the ancient barbarian language, we shall reproduce a series of words of Latin origin, which had belonged to the national idiom of the populations forming the ethnic substratum of the provinces subjected to Roman domination, words which do not derive, either from Greek language, or from the Italic language.

Some of these remains of ancient language have been transmitted by the Greek and Latin authors, while others have been preserved in the Egyptian mortuary papyri. It is understandable though that these words, which were subjected to other mode of pronunciation, to other grammatical laws, and written in a foreign alphabet, could not reach us but in a more or less altered form.

What we present here is only a specimen of Latin barbarian language, as much as the pages of this book allow us. But a more general glossary, which contained also the barbarian Latin words which have entered the Slavic, German, Gallic, Britannic and Hispanic languages, would be a true light for the philological studies devoted to knowing the foundation on which have developed, the Italic rustic language on the one hand, and the Roman languages of the provinces on the other.

The research of the origin of a language, as well as in the appreciation of its elements and forms, cannot proceed but in a historical way; any other system, lacking a basis, cannot lead to the truth.

From the examples which we reproduce further it shall be seen that a great number of Romanian words, considered by some as originated from the Slavonic language, have belonged in fact to the Pelasgian, barbarian language, only many hundreds of years before the arriving of the Slavs in Europe.

(TN – In the following I took the liberty of omitting most of the references, as most of them have been already mentioned throughout this book).

 

.A.

 

- Aapas – in the language of the Oscii, Lat. aquas?, Romanian apa. Aphas, river in the Epirus (Pliny. 4. 1. 3). Ponte Abei, locality in Asturia (Rav.); Sard. abba, water.

- Aaru and Anru, sown field, champ des moissons, in the northern regions of the ancient world where, according to the Egyptian religious legends, the stalk of the wheat was 7 ells high, and its ear 2 ells. Il circule dans les champs d’Aarou, ou lui sont donnes le ble et l’orge (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 8. 225. 331. 335. 508). The word derives from the root aro, Greek aroo, to plow, Romanian a ara, from which aroura, place of plowing.

- ababa, mother, mama in the language of the Thracians. Maximinus senior de vico Thraciae vicino, barbaro etiam patre et matre genitus…Et patri quidem nomen Micea, matri Ababa fuisse dicitur (Capit. Maximini duo). It is a derivation from an ancient form ab – ava = abavia, see Baba.

- Ababus on a Latin inscription, instead of abavus (Reines, Synt. Inscr. Lat. I, 10. 6. 71).

- ’Abba, tata, Lat. pater (Suidas). The word has existed also in the ancient Pannonic language. Rex Samuel (c.1040), qui pro sua pietate Oba vocabatur (Anonym. Bel. reg. not. 32) see ‘Appa.

- Abbae, tata, in the language of the inhabitants of Bogos in Ethiopia, though used only in the vocative. Bogos is the fine territory situated in the foothills of the northern mountains of Ethiopia. According to local traditions, the most ancient inhabitants of this land had been 4 brothers who had come with their flocks and had occupied all the pastures there. One of these brothers was called Lammachalli (Rammaselli), another Beleqa (Sitzungsber. XCIX B. 583). Both these names indicate that the most ancient masters of the land Bogos had been the Arimii and the Belacii. In the idiom of the inhabitants of Bogos we find even today some traces of the ancient Pelasgian language, and in their national songs they celebrate even now the ancient Romii  “comme des vaillants guerriers si hardis qu’ils jetaient leur lance contre le ciel” (Reclus, Geogr. X. 233). See ‘Abba, ‘Apa and ‘Appa.

- ‘Abioi (Abii), migratory people of shepherds, who, coming from Asia to Europe, had divided in two currents, one advancing westwards along the shores of the Northern Sea, the other along the Carpathians and the Danube. With Homer, the Abii appear at the north of Thrace, near the Mysii and the Scythians (Iliad, XIII. 6). The form of the name corresponds to Albi (Arimii albi, TN – white Arimii). In the Ionic dialect, l fell often. In the Istro-Romanian language ab, abi = alb, albi. Abus, river in Britannia (Ptol. II. 3. 4). Aba Decelia = Alba Decilia (Rav.), Alba Docilia (Tab. Peut.), locality in Liguria.

- ‘Abos (Abus), part of the Taurus mountain in northern Armenia, at the sources of the Euphrates (Ptol.).

- ‘Aboula (Abula), a city of Hispania in the region inhabited by the Bastitanii (Ptol.).

- Accion. According to Aviennus (Or. Mar. 683), Lake Leman in Switzerland had been called in ancient times Accion: vetus mos Graeciae vocitavit Accion. The word was therefore a general term in the eastern parts of Europe, used for big lakes. See ‘Ocheanos.

- Aker, as called in the Egyptian papyri, the fertile territory, the divine region from the northern parts of the Pelasgian empire. Roi de la contree Aker; region Aker (Pierret, Livre d. m. 47. 19. 7. 570). The word corresponds to the Latin form ager, Germ. Acker, as results from the interpretation of this word in the Egyptian papyri. The great agricultural festivity, “La fete Haker”, is also called “grande fete du labourage” (Pierret, ibid. 84. 85). See Aaru.

- ach and acha, ancient barbarian words with the meaning aqua, apa. In Rhetia and on the territory of Germany, where part of the Arimii Perlasgians dwelt (Herminonii, Arminii, Alamanii), ach is the final word in the name of a number of rivers, like Altach, Kronach, etc (Grimm, D. W.; Jung, Romer). The same word appears in the German language also under the form Ache, Aache and Oche. Aucha, river in Daica, at the place called Galtis, where the king of the Goths, Ostrogotha, had defeated the king of the Gepidii, Fastida (Jornand. Get. 17). Aachen, the ancient royal crowning city of the German kings, was called in medieval Latin language Aquae and Urbs Aquensis. See ‘Achaia and ‘Ocheanos.

- ‘Achaia (Achaia), in older times a general geographic term for the lands situated near the sea. With Homer, Achaia is sometimes the name of Hellada. In a more constricted term, Achaia was the name of a province of the Peloponnesus, situated at the north of the peninsula, near the gulf of Corinth. Another Achaia was in Thessaly, near the Aegean Sea, but it was called Phthiotis, and had as capital Larissa. Etym. from acha, aqua, apa. See ach.

- ‘Acheloos (Achelous), a river of Thessaly, flowing from the Pindus; other rivers with the same name in Phrygia, Arcadia, Achaia, Thessaly. With the poets, this word is used for almost any flowing water. See ach.

- Achon., throwing lance (Homer). In Romanian aconiu, instrument of iron, thin and sharp.

- ‘Ades and ‘Aides (Hom), Orcus, Tartarus, Rom. iad. Ancient Romanian form adu (Cod. Voronet). With the poet Virgil, Avernul is called also hiatus (Aen. VI. 237). Iada, a locality in Romanian (Falciu), where exists a large gully.

- aesar, in the language of the Etruscans deu, Lat. deus (Suet. Oct. 97), Hesychius aisoi; in the language of the Getae, Anses, demigods (Jornandes, c. 13); Anxur, the co-name of Jove with the Romans, venerated as Jupiter puer (Serv. Aen. 7. 799); all dialectal forms of a single word. Romanian anger; Lat. angelus; Fr. Ange; Bress. Anzo; Burguig. Ainge; Port. Anjo.

- aar, aer (TN – air), atmosphere (Hom.).

- Aeternitate(m) imperi(i), the durability of the empire (Henzen, Acta Fr. Arv.). In the ancient rustic language, the word aeternus did not have the meaning of “sempiternus” (TN – for ever), but it meant only diu vivere, to live long.

- agele, flock, multitude, Lat. grex. With Homer, cattle herds, armentum. In Romanian arghelia, argela (Marienescu, Bal. I), hargelia (Lex. Bud.), hergelia, erghelia, equorum grex, equorum armentum; argelar, pl. argelari, the owner, or the man who watched the horses. In Romanian the word derives from the root “arg” (argos), untilled field, destined for grazing horses.

- agon, place of assembly, the space destined for the war games, locus congregationis, locus certaminis (Homer, Herod.), Romanian ogoiu, sphaeristerium, space for the game with balls.

- agos, dux exercitus, duce (Homer, Iliad, Iv. 519). With Plato, agis (Cratyl. 15). In Deuteronomy, Og, the king of the Amoreii, the last of the Giants. In Romanian epic songs the word agu has the meaning of emperor (Bragadir village, Teleorman).We find in the language of the Secuii of Transilvania, who have borrowed a lot of words from the Romanians, the verb agal, pretending, playing the “lord”, meaning “agul” (Kriza, Vadrozs. 493). In an ancient Egyptian papyrus, Hermes is called Aah-Toth, where his title Aah (= Ag) is also explained by the words “Marchant a la tete” (Maspero, Et. II. 448). To the root agu (agos) seems to be reduced also the Latin word Augustus (Agustus), adopted by Octavianus as imperial title, a proof that this term had had in the popular language the meaning of dux, imperator. Ovid and Festus think that “Augustus” was a word synonymous with “sanctus”, but this was a more remote meaning in any case.

- agros, with Homer field and the countryside, as opposed to the city. In Latin ager, in Romanian, field in general, agru, tilled field (Hasdeu), in Banat agru, field for ploughing, in Macedo-Romanian, field where cereals are sown (Hasdeu). In Cod. Voronetian, agru = ogor, farming plot.

- aia, having the same meaning as gaia, terra, tellus, earth, country (Homer). In the folk poetry of Dobrogea, aieni, indigenous people, of the land (Burada, Dobrogea, p. 128).

- aietos, vulture (Homer), in Romanian, arete and erete, bird from the genus of the hawks.

- ala, equus, cal, in the language of the Pelasgians from Caria (St. Byzant.). With the Romans, ala was a cavalry corps, composed of 500 men. With the Romanians from Basarabia, hal = cal (Arbore, Besarabia, 189). The word has been used in ancient times also in the northern parts of the lower Danube. From “ala” derives the name of the Alanii from the lower Istru (Eustath. p. 305; Isidorus, XIX. 23). In the times of Honorius, the Alanii were considered as a Latin people (Claudianus. Cons. IV. Honor.).

- ‘Alba (Alba), the ancient name of the river Tiber (Diod.). See Albula.

- Alba, with Tacitus Albis, the great river of Germany, which separated the Cheruscii from the Suevii, today Elba. Albim, the name of a river with the Aruthenii from Zabie (Miklosich, Denkschr. t. XXX).

- ‘Albachos (Albacus), a mountain in Caria, in Asia Minor (Ptol. V. 2. 320). Albac, mountain, river and village in Transilvania.

- ‘Albanon oros (Albanus mons), a mountain in southern Pannonia (Ptol.).

- albeum, instead of alveum, Romanian albia. Padus relicto albeo suo (Grom. Vet. 50).

- ‘Albia ore (Albii montes), was the ancient name of the Alpes (Strabo), see Alpes.

- Albion oros (Albius mons), a mountain on the territory of the Iapodii near the Alpes (Strabo).

- Albion, was the name of great Vritannia in older times. In primitive times these islands had been occupied by the Abii or White Arimii.

- Albocola, locality in Lusitania. With Ptol. Albocella, Itin. Prov. Albocela.

- Albula, the ancient name of the Tiber. See ‘Alba.

- Album promontorium in Africa, near the Gaditan strait (Pliny, III, Proem.).

- Albus, Albanus, Albonus, Albicus, Albicianus, personal co-names in Hispania (C I.L. vol. II).

- alces, a species of deer in Germany, Fr. Élan. The word seems to be only a diminutive form from ala, horse (Pliny, VIII. 16). In the dialect of the Romanians from Meglena, Alcia is the name of a horse of a reddish color (Papahagi, Meg.-rom. II. 36); Macedo-Rom. algie and algiu.

- alphos, Lat. albus, Rom. alb, alfos in the Iguvine dialect, Retorom. alf.

- alphos, white spots on the skin, Lat. vitiligo.

- allos, alius, Rom. altul, another.

- Alpes (sing. Alpis), the name of the high chain of mountains at the north of the Italic peninsula. The word derives from albus. According to Strabo, the ancient name of the Alpes was ‘Albia ore (Albii montes). The changing of b in p also appears in the Romanian language: alpia instead of albia (Marienescu, Bal. II. 15).

- ‘Alpis (Alpis), the name of a river in the regions above the Umbrii. In the Roman epoch Alba, Albis, today Elba.

- alpus, in the language of the Sbinii, Lat. albus, Rom. alb.

- Altanus, the name of a wind in the Latin rustic language (Pliny, I. 44. 2). With the Romanians from Banat, the wind which blows from the mountain is called the Oltului wind.

- ‘Altenai (Altenae), a castle near the Danube, towards east of Transmarisca, in the regions of Oltenita of today.

- alutatium (aurum). This is how the ancient workers of mines called the gold found on the surface of the earth, “in summo cespite” (Pliny, 33. 4. 2).

- alutia, gold mines in the language of the inhabitants of Lusitania (Pliny, 34. 47), altun in the Cumanic language.

- Alutum river, the name of the river Olt in a Roman inscription from the time of Trajan (Froehner, Col. Traj.). With Herodotus Atlas, with Ptolemy Aluta.

- ‘Amaia (Amaia), a name of the divinity Ceres, Maia, Terra Mater with the Romans.

- amalusta, the name of a plant in Dacia, which the inhabitants from Campania called amalocia.

- amarachos, the name of a plant with the inhabitants of Cyzic, near Propontis, Lat. amaracus. In Romanian, a similar form is maracina.

- amelgein, Lat. mulgere, Rom. a mulge (TN – to milk).

- ‘Amnias (Amnias), a river in Paflagonia, in Latin amnis, river.

- ‘Amnisos (Amnisus), river and port in Crete (Odyss.).

- amnos, fem. amna, uniu anni agnus, in Romanian miel and mnel (TN – lamb).

- amolgos, crepusculum, Romanian amurgul, with Homer nochtos amolgo, evening.

- amino, to abate, to reject. With Homer the word is in connection with the “hands”; Romanian a amana (TN – mana=hand), proferre, procrastinare. 

- anaxyris, used only in pl. anaxyrides, Romanian cioarecii, or the long and wide trousers of the Scythes (Herod.), Lat. braccae. The word corresponds to the Romanian nadragi, the peasant wide trousers worn eve today in some parts of Romania (Vlasca, Teleorman).

- agchylos, crooked, curved (Homer), Lat. angulus, Rom. unghiu (TN – angle).

- ‘Anemoreia (Anemoria), a city near Delphi on a high hill (Homer, Steph. Byz.). With Homer nemos, Lat. nemus, forest with pasture for cattle.

- ‘Anigridai nymphai (Anigridae nymphae). In the province Elis in the Peloponnesus, according to Pausanias, the people who had black or white marks on the body addressed their prayers to the nymphs called Anigridae (Descr. Gr. 5. 5. 11). See ‘Anigros.

- ‘Anigros (Anigrus), river in Triphylia in the Peloponnesus (Strabo).

- anti and ankh, in the mortuary papyri of the Egyptians with the meaning of unguentum, oleum, butyrum. The word corresponds to the Romanian form unt, Lat. unctum.

- Anxurus, the co-name of Jove, venerated as Jupiter puer. The word belongs to the rustic, barbarian language and corresponds to the Romanian anger, Romaniol anzul, Lat. angelus.

- ‘Apa, title of the Egyptian priests. See ‘Abba and ‘Appa.

- Apammari, a locality in Mesopotamia near the Euphrates. The word corresponds to the Romanian form Apa mare (TN – big water). In Persian ap means also apa, Lat. aqua. See apo.

- aparcha, primae anni fruges. Romanian parghie (TN – lever).

- Aphas, river in the Epirus. In Latin aqua, Rom. apa, see ach and acha.

- Aplu, the name of Apollo with the Etruscans, Aplus on the national coins of Dacia.

- Apo fl., a river of Dacia which flew into the Danube near the Roman road coming from Viminaciu towards Sarmizegethusa. Appion with Ravennas, Apion with Guido. See the forms Aapas, Apammari, Aphas.

- ‘Appa = pappas, atta,, father, with Calimachus.

- ‘Apsorros (Apsorrhus), river in Cappadocia (Ptol. 5. 6), river of the Pontus (Scylax). In the language of the Romanian people, apsora and apusora, diminutive forms of apa, Lat. aqua. Apsora, a stream in Romania near Muntele sec in Mehedinti.

- Apulum and Aplum, the name of a city of Dacia in Roman inscritptions. With Ptolemy ‘Apoulon, on the Tab. Peut. Apula. The form of the name corresponds to A(l)bulum, A(l)bula. In the Middle Ages Alba Transilvaniae.

- aroaesa, in the language of the inhabitants of Bogos (Ethiopia) means aratoriu, plowman, Lat. arator, Germ. Ackersmann.

- arborria, the name of a plant with the Dacians; with the Greeks chissos melas, and with the inhabitants of Italy hedera nigra.

- archale and archane, the wood on which ropes were tied in order to catch or pull something, Romanian arcan.

- ‘Archas, pl. ‘Archades (Arcas, Arcades), the inhabitants of Arcadia. According to Suidas, the Arcadii were the most bellicose among all the Greeks, who led a military life in the beginning (Strabo, 5. 2. 4). With the Athenians, there existed a class of soldiers with the name ‘Argadeis (Herod. 5. 66). Pausanias mentions also arcasi (TN – bowmen) among the fighters of Arcadia (4. 4. 3). Without doubt, in the beginning ‘Archas had the same meaning as the Romanian arcas, Sagittarius. In Maramures arcas, hunter, or soldier armed with a bow.

- ‘Argetares (Argetares), a castle fortified by Justinian in the regions of the river Timoc.

- argilla, subterraneum aedificium, subterranean dwelling in the language of the Cimmerians (Crimea), in Romanian argea, Lat. cella subterranea.

- argillos, mouse in the language of the Thracians, Lat. mus.

- argos, agru, field, untilled earth, countryside. With the ancient Macedonians and Thessalians argos = pedion. The word was especially used by the Pelasgians. Pelasgichon ‘Agros, the plain of Thessaly; Pedion ‘Argon or pedion tou ‘Argou, a plain in Arcadia. In Romanian argat, paid hand employed in farming work, Greek ‘argates.

- arima, Scythian word, Lat. unus, Rom. unu. This word has been preserved in a close form in the folk verses recited by children in the Hungarian regions of ancient Pannonia – where we find the forms unuma (unoma, onoma) and dunuma, with the meaning of one, two -, and in the verses recited by the Romanian children: una mia, una-i mara, anarama. ‘Arima in the Scythian language is a rotacised word, like with the Istro-Romanians ur = unu (TN – one).

- Arius, river near the Indus, which flew along Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great. Macedo-Rom. ariu.

- aroo, Lat. arare, Rom. a ara (TN – to plough).

- arotar, Lat. arator, he who ploughs, Rom. plugar.

- ‘Arotos. Lat. aratus, Rom. arat, aratura (Hom.).With Hesiodus arotos, tempus arationis, the time of ploughing.

- arotron, aratrum, plough. ‘Aroura (Hom.), Lat. arvum, arata terra, ager, campus; Rom. camp de aratura, ploughed field.

- arrabon, Rom. arvuna (TN – initial deposit for owed money). From the Romanians the word has passed in the language of the Ruthenii under the form arawona (Miklosich).

- arren, ram, animal of masculine sex. In Latin ares and aries. Rom. arête, ariete and ireu, not gelded ram.

- ‘Arsa (arsa), a castle in Dardania in the time of Justinian.

- ‘Arsena (Arsena), a castle in the regions of Illyria, repaired in the time of Justinian. A similar form is found in Romanian incantations: the woods of Arsinii (Marian).

- ‘Arzos (Arzus), a city and river in Thrace, which flew in the Propontis. ‘Arzon, castle in the Rhodope mountains. In the regions of the Carpathians, Ars and Arsul, the name of a number of mountains.

- ‘Asarachai (Asaracae), a people from the region of the Getulii in Libya (Ptol. IV. 6. 296). Seraca (var. Saraca), locality in Media (Ptol. VI. 2). In Rom. sarac, pauper, infelix.

- ‘Asarath (Asarath), river in Mauritania. Zaratha (Zaratha), locality in Mauritania. Zalathos (Salathus), river in Libya. On the Romanian territory from the Carpathians, a number of streams and localities Sarata.

- aschu (aschu), According to Herodotus, the Arimaspii from Scythia made from the fruit of the tree “ponticon” a sort of drink, and from the peel of the fruit a sort of bread named aschu (lib. IV. 23). It is the same word as the Latin esca, nutriment alimente, In Cumanic language as, cibus.

- ‘Asilba (Asilba), a castle near the Istru, repaired in the times of Justinian. A barbarian form of the word silva, wood.

- ateros, alter, Rom. altul, another.

- ‘Atlas (Atlas), a river which flew into the lower Istru (Herod.). In the Roman epoch Alutum, Aluta. In the medieval documents of Hungary Olt and Olta, Romanian Olt.

- atta, allocution of respect of a youth towards someone older (Suidas). In the language of the inhabitants of Bithynia attis had the meaning of papas, tata, father, in the Latin rustic language atta. The word has been also in use in Dacia (C. I. L. III. 1435). In this inscription Atta corresponds to Tata from the inscription from Palestrina, placed on the grave of a child, by Primitiva Mat(er) and Arius Tata (Torquati, Orig. d. l. ital. 304). In the Comasc dialect of Italy atta = father. With the Swiss ate, with the Romansche at, in the word bis-at, ancestor. In the language of the Cumanii, ata means pater.

- aule, Lat. aula, the courtyard of a house. With the Romanians from Banat avila = courtyard.

- aure, Ionic aura, aer, air, Lat. aura, the gentle breath of air. In the Megleno-Rom. dialect aura = coolness, Lat. refrigerium.

- Austravia (Austrania), the name of an island from the Suevic Sea, renowned in ancient times for the “electrum” brought from there (Pliny, XXXVII. 12. 2). Austravia corresponds to Ostravia, Romanian ostrov, island.

- ‘Axenos and ‘Axeinos (Axenus or Axius), an ancient name of the Euxine Pontos, an altered Greek form of the word ocean(os), see ‘Ocheanos.

- ‘Axios (Axius), a river of lower Mesia, which flew into the Danube, near the marsh called Ociu at Rasova; ‘Axios, the great river of Macedonia, today Vardar; ‘Axios, river in Syria, near which was the city Apamea; Axium, river in Britannia; Axon, river in southern Caria; Axona, river in Gallia Belgica, at the frontiers of the Remii. These are words which also appear under the forms of Oaxes, river in Crete; Oxus, the most important river of Asia after the Indus and Ganges; Accion, the name of the lake Leman, all of which are reduced to aqua, aha, Rom. ociu, see ach and ‘Ocheanos.

- AXBVCTE – A graffiti discovered in the basilica S. Alexander in Via Nomentana in Rome, whose age goes back at the most to the 4th century ad, contains in its first part the letters of the alphabet in the following order:

AXBVCTESDR

FQGPH….M

The learned archaeologist Garrucci had observed that in this series of letters, A is united with X, B with V, and so forth. Another graffiti discovered in the termes from Stabiae near Pompeii, contains the letters of the alphabet almost in the same order: AXBVCTDSER. Other examples have been also discovered on the walls of Pompeii and Herculanum, cities buried under the ash of the Vesuvius in 79bc. Finally, the illustrious numismatist Eckhel has realized too that on some series of the denarii of the Roman Republic could be seen imprinted the letters AX, BV, CT, DS, ER, FQ, GP, HO, IN, KM. The archaeologist Cavedoni has been the first to suppose that this curious combination of letters was reduced to an ancient didactic use, to have the children repeat the letters of the alphabet not only in their established order, but also in this way of jumping from the first letter to the last, the second to the second last, and so forth. What Cavedoni had only supposed, is completely confirmed by the following words of S. Hieronymus: As we read the Greek alphabet in its normal order to the last letter, similarly, in order to imprint even more in the minds of the children the memory of letters, we have the custom to change the order of reading, and to add to the letters from the beginning those from the end, saying AlphaOmega, BetaPsi (Ierem. XXV, 26). In the above graffiti and examples, the letter A is combined with X, which according to some, had been introduced in the Latin alphabet in the times of Cicero, and according to others, of Augustus. But before the borrowing of X from the Greeks, as it was said, the last letter of the Latin alphabet had been Z (cf. C. I. L. vol. VIII. 20. 21). Without doubt there also had existed a combination of A with Z, in the form AZBVCTDSERFQ.

Through prolonged use, this mixed order of the letters had started to form a sort of groups or words, like AZ, BUCTE, DSERFQ, which later have been applied as particular names for some letters, as seen in the names of the letters in the ancient Romanian alphabet, wrongly called Cyrillic: A = Az(AZ); B = Buchie (BVCT and BVCTE); C (which corresponds to ce in Romanian epigraphy) = cerfa (DSERFQ).

The bishop Isidorus of Sevilla tells us also that the names of the letters were of barbarian origin (Orig. lib. I. 4. 17). Later, this combination of letters AZ – BVCTE became in the language of the barbarian populations the name of the alphabet, and the letters were generally named buchi by the Romanians and Slavs (Germ. Buchstabe). The Greeks had borrowed the letters of the alphabet from the Barbarians or the Pelasgians of Europe, not from the Phoenicians. This results from the similarity of the ancient Greek letters with the Latin letters (Pliny, VII. 58). And this resemblance of forms had made Caesar to believe that the Helvetii and Druidii used Greek letters (B. G. I, 29; VII, 14). The ancient terminology of the graphic art has in fact a barbarian character, pastoral and agricultural. With the Greeks, the ancient way of writing was called bustrophedon, meaning “as the oxen turn during ploughing” (Pausanias, 5. 18). The first row was written from left to right, the second from right to left, and each following row started from where the preceding had ended. For the term “to write”, the Greeks used the word graphein (in ancient form grapein), “to scratch, to engrave, to hide underground, identical with the Romanian “a grapa”, occare agrum  (TN – harrow). In the same way, the Romanians said often exarare instead of “scribere”, meaning “to imitate the way of ploughing (TN – a ara)”.

The Greeks called the material on which they wrote, biblos, more correctly byblos = diphdera (pellis rasa, pellis bubula), “piele lucrata” (TN – worked skin), because the barbarians, as Herodotus tells us, wrote on animal skins.

In regard to the name of the first letters of the Greek alphabet, ‘Alpha corresponds to the feminine Umbric adjective alfa, Retorom. alf, alva; Sab. alpa, Lat. and Rom. alba; and Beta is without doubt the same word from which derives the form italus (bos, taurus), Rom. vita, Fr. bete and beta (Littre). Varro also writes (L. L. VIII. 64): “alpha, etc. non esse vocabula nostra sed penitus barbara”. From the language of the Pelasgians, and maybe through the mediation of the Greeks, the names of these letters had also passed to the Hebrews, under the forms aleph and beth. 

 

.B.

 

- Baal (Baal), a king of the Tyrians, who had ruled after Itobalus. In the Semitic language the word had the meaning dominus. In the language of the Pelasgians from Phrygia, balan = king. Under the form of balus the word had been used also in the official Roman language as a title for the brave king of the Dacians, who had forced the Roman empire to pay him an annual tribute. A manuscript of Dio explains the name of Decebal with the words the king of the Dacians. Thet “Decebal” was not a proper name results also from the letter of Pliny II to the poet Caninius, that the names of the Dacians were barbarian and wild, and especially that of the king himself (barbara et fera nomina. Epist. 8. 4).

- Baau (Baau) in Phoenician language = night. In Rom. bau, expression for scaring the children in the dark, or at night.

- Baba, a personality from mythical times. In Romanian epic poems Baba with the meaning of old: Baba-Novac=Novac the old, Greek pappos. With Varro, pappus is senex, with Ausonius is avus. Italian babo, Sard. babu, father, Macedorom. baba, father, Retorom. bab, father. In Romanian babac and babaca = tata, father. The word had also existed in the rustic language of Italy. We find with Plautus the exclamation: Babae, Tatae, Papae!

- Baba, Egyptian divinity, the guardian of the palace of Osyris in the northern regions of the empire.

- Babas (Babas), a commander of the Roman troupes, originally from Thrace.

- Babyle (Babule), city on the territory of the Odrysii of Thrace. In the Romanian language baba, mama, mother, grandmother, old woman, Lat. mater, avia, anus, vetula. Baba, pl. Babe, rocks in various regions of the Carpathians, which present from afar a more or less resemblance with the figure of an old woman.

- Baba (Baba), city in Mauritania, named in the time of Augustus Colonia Campestris Iulia Babba. Baba, locality in Mesopotamia.

- Bebia ore (Bebii montes), part of the mountains of upper Pannonia. The name corresponds to the Romanian form Muntii Babei (TN – the Mountains of Baba).

- Babas (Babas), castle in Macedonia, repaired in the time of Justinian.

- Baku, Bacchos (Bacchus), the Thracian name of Dionysus, Osyris of the Egyptians. In the Egyptian papyri Baku is a title of Osyris. In Greek inscriptions Bacchos and Bacchios is an epithet of Dionysus-Osyris. With Macrobius Bacchus, according to some historical sources, is identical with Osyris. It is a barbarian word with the meaning of bull. In the Acts of the Arvali Brothers we find the feminine form bacca or baccha = vacca (TN – cow). In the popular Latin language has existed also the masculine form boca or boaca. In Egyptian papyri Osyris (Dionysus, Bacchus) is called taureau d’Amenti; taureau au sein d’Egypte (Pierret, Livre d. morts). With Sophocles, Bacchus has the epithet boucheros, “with horns of ox” and taurophagos “who eats bulls”. Rom.  bic, bica, bull, Rom. dialect from Istria bac = bull.

- Baitulia (Baetulia), animate lapides, animated stones, about which the ancients told that had been invented by Uranos; probably a sort of explosives used in war. The word is barbarian, deriving from battuo, a bate, to beat. Italian battaglia, Fr. bataille, Rom. bataia and batalia.

- Baitulos (Baetulus), a son of Uranos, brother with Saturn. In some Romanian epic songs, Iovita, the illegitimate son of Novac the old (Saturn), figures only with the name Baiatul. “Baetulus” is a traditional barbarian name, as also results from the words of the grammarian Priscianus (Inst. V. 19): lapis ille, quem Saturnus vorasse traditur pro ioue, quem Graeci baitulon vocant; where the word baitulon referred in more ancient texts to “ioue” (Iovis), not to “lapis”.

- Balan (Balan) in the accusative form. According to Procopius (B. G.), the Barbarians called Balan a black horse with a white forehead, as had been the horse of Belisarius in the war with the Goths in Italy; Romanian cal (horse) balan, or simply balan, white horse.

- Balan, king in the language of the Phrygians. See Baal and Banus.

- Balios (Balius), one of the horses used by Achilles in the Trojan war. With the Romanians, cal balan and cal bal; with the Macedoromanians, cal baliu, with a little white star on the forehead; in the dialect from Meglena, baliu = balan.

- balle, the last word in the composed name Mauroballe, castle repaired by Justinian in the Thraco-Illyrian regions.

- Balthutha and Balducta, in Latin medieval language in the regions of Geneve, lac pressum. The word belongs to the barbarian Latin language, Rom. lapte batut, Lat. lac batutum (TN – butter milk).

- Baltia, a vast island in the Northern Sea, probably Sweden (Plin. IV. 27), Abalus with Pytheas. The name “Baltia” comes without doubt from the barbarian name of the sea. Greek balte, Lat. palus, Rom. and Mrom. balta (lac), lake. The word has also existed in the language of the indigenes of Pannonia, as results from the name of the lake Balaton, which pre-supposes a popular form baltoniu = big lake.

- balucem (accus. from balux), gold dust in the popular language of Hispania  (Plin. XXXIII. 21. 11). In Cod. Theodos. balluca, Romanian beuta = white round little stone, found in the bed of rivers, bal and bel with the Maceodromanians.

- banausos, he who works at the hearth or oven. Rom. banias or baias, miner, see Baunos.

- banda, in the barbarian language of the Pelasgians from Caria means victory, Lat. victory, Rom. isbanda.

- Baniana, city in Hispania Baetica. Banienses, minicipium in Lusitania. Hispania had been renowned in antiquity for its gold mines. The topical names Baniana and Banienses, as well as the Romanian words bania or baia, Lat. metallifodina, are reduced to the same root as the Greek baunos, fornax, caminus, from where banausos, he who works at the oven or hearth. In the Thraco-Illyric regions, Banes (Banes), a castle repaired by Justinian.

- Bannas, as Hesychius writes, meant “king” for the inhabitants of the lower parts of Italy, or the highest political and military position. In the eastern parts of Europe the word under the form ban is very ancient. See banus and Pan.

- banus. A king of the Alanii near the Istru is called by Jornandes Sangibanus. The last part of this name, banus, indicates a national political position, like rix in “Boiorix”. The Alanii were neighbors of the Dacians. With the Romanians, ban is the most ancient title of the Domni (TN – the equivalent of king) from the country of Ardel (Transilvania). The Bani of Ardel are also mentioned in the epic poetry of the Serbs. Bani were called also the ancient Domni from Tera Severinului. In Romanian traditional poetry, Banul also had the sovereign title of Domn. In Bulgarian epic poetry, ban is synonymous with “crai”. See Bannas.

- barbiton (barbitum), old musical instrument used by the Hyperborean poetess Sapho (Eupnorion. Fr. 8).

- baschanon, remedy against spells used by Barbarians. Rom. boscona.

- bathron, pl bathra, Rom. vatra, hearth, the place where the fire burns.

- batocura. A graffiti discovered on the walls of a brothel in Aquincum (Pannonia), contains a few lines in Latin, addressed by someone to Gratus, about whom it says that he had love relations with a Greek woman, the servant of Lupus, while another graffiti contains the word Batocura, Romanian batjocura, Lat. derisus, ludibrium, contumelia, derision.

- battos (battus), king, rex, in the language of the inhabitnts of Libya. In the times of Augustus, two army commanders of the populations from Pannonia had the names Bato and Batto. In the Romanian language of the Voronetian Codex we find vatahul (vatah) with the meaning of emperor and august.

- batrachos, Lat. rana, batrachus; Rom. brosca, brotac, frog.

- baunos, fornax, caminus, oven for the melting of metals; in Romanian bania or baia, the place where metals arre extracted and purified, Lat. metallifodina.

- becchos in Phrygian, Lat. panis, Rom. pane. Seems to be the same word as the Latin victus (etym. from “vivo”), aliments, nutrients, Fr. vivres.

- bedu (bedu), aer (TN – air) in the religious language of the ancient Macedonians; Rom. vezduh, atmosphere, but in the Voronetian Codex  vezduh = air.

- bedu (bedu), aqua, apa, in the language of the Phrygians. Viada, var. Viadus, river in Germania, considered as identical with Oder. Vidua, river in Hibernia. Badu (Badu), the name of a river in the Elis province in the Peloponnesus. The word has also existed in the countries of Dacia. Vede, art. Vedea, a river which springs in Arges district and flows into the Danube. In Serbian, voda = apa, water.

- bela, oie (TN – sheep), Lat. ovis. Rom. bela, name given to the sheep in general, and to white sheep in particular. In its diminutive form the word has also passed in the Hungarian language of the Secuii of Transilvania: belicze, an entirely white lamb.

- Balos (Belus), the king of Chaldeea and Assyria, contemporary with Saturn, Balaban in Romanian epic songs. In Rom and Mrom. bel (bal) means alb, balan, white; Lat. bellus. Belu, Bela and Beluta, personal Romanian names and co-names.

- berbeces, in the Acts of the Arvali brothers, instead of “verveces”. Berbicem (Lex Sal. 286), berbecibus (Baluz. Capit. T. 83), Rom. berbece, pl. berbeci (TN – ram), in Gallic Latin berbiz and berbis. The word has existed under this form also in Pannonia. In the Hungarian dialect from Vasvar county, berbecz and berbets, lambskin cap.

- berounos, Lat. vir unus. It is the same word as the French v. ber, Hisp. baro, robust, strong, Lat. fortis, Gael. bar, hero, Macedorom. bura. In ancient Romanian biruire = reign; biruitoriu = brave.

- Bescera, a locality in Numidia, Romanian pescera, Lat. specus, caverna, antrum (TN – cave).

- betisare. The emperor Augustus, as Suetonius tells us, wrote betisare instead of “languere”. Rom. a se betegi, aegresco (to become infirm); beteg, Lat. aegrotus, morbidus (TN – infirm). The word has been preserved as a noun borrowed from the Romanians, in the language of the Secuii from Transilvania, in betia = epilepsy.

- biblos, more correctly byblos, the material on which people wrote in ancient times, called by Ionians diphthera, worked skin (pellis rasa), because the Ionians, as Herodotus tells us (II. 58), wrote on goat and sheep skins, like many barbarians of his times. The word biblos from which has been later formed biblion, book, was therefore of barbarian origin and corresponds to the Latin adjective bubulus (corium bubulum, pellis bubula).

- Blandus, co-name in Pannonia. Blandiana, locality in Dacia, between Germizera and Apula. Romanian bland, Lat. blandus, mitis, clemens (TN – gentle).

- blastema, instead of “blasphema”. In the archaeological Annals of the Rhenanian Province are reproduced various paintings on glass from earlier Christian times. Among others there is also figured here Iov, lying on dirt, while his wife addresses him the words: IOB BLASTEMA. These are the words from the book of Iov, c. 2, where his wife tells him “Blastema pe D-deu and mori” (TN – curse God and die).

- blecha, balatus ovium, bleating of the sheep, Rom. a blehai, Lat. balare and belare.

- blas (bles), the name of a plant with the Dacians, blitum with the Romans. The word corresponds to the Rom. vres (vrej), branch of plant separated by the stem; Serbian vriez, Gr. briz.

- bodincus. In the language of the Ligurii of Italy meant “without bottom”, Rom. adanc, Lat. profundus.

- bontys, shouting, Rom. vuet, Lat. strepitus, clamor, tumultus.

- bolas, the birth pains, Rom. bola (TN – illness), Lat. morbus.

- boleoi (sing. boleos), gathered heaps of stones, Rom. bolovan, big rough stone, Lat. rudis lapis, saxum ingens, bolus.

- boreas and borras, aquilo, the cold and violent wind of the north. Rom. bura, negura (TN – fog), which turns to ice when falls on the ground; Lat. pruina, nebula; Macedorom. bora, storm; in the dialect of the Romanians from Meglena, boari, wind.

- Boxs(ani) vicani, a community of inhabitants near the shores of the Rhodan, close to the Alpes. Rom. bocsa, colliery; Lat. fornax, carbonaria. Bocsani, a locality in Banat, with ancient mines.

- brabulon, the name of a plant with the inhabitants from Rhodes and Sicily. The form of the name corresponds to Rom. baraboiu, chaerophylum bulbosum.

- braca (pl. bracae and braccae), Gr. anaxirides, the long and large trousers used by the barbarian populations, especially the Scythians and the Gallii. Cicero calls the barbarians braccatae nations. Southern Gallia was also called by the Romans Gallia braccata, because of the barbarian clothes worn by its inhabitants. Valerius Flaccus mentions Sarmaticis bracis and Ovid, braccata turba Getarum. In Romanian we have from the same root the forms: bracire, cingulum (TN – to girdle); bracinariu, cingulum braccarum (TN – belt); a imbraca, induere, vestire (TN – to don clothes); a desbraca, exuere (TN – to take off clothes).

- bracile, Lat. med, Rom. bracire. “Cingulum, quod bulgo bracile dicitur”.

- branca, claw. With the Romans: branca lupi and branca ursi, signs on boundary stones. In Romanian branca = hand, and branca, pl. branci, are the forelegs of the animals of prey; branca ursului, a plant, Heracleum spondilium. In the Prov. and Retorom. languages branca = claw, Germ. Kralle.

- brandonum (Dominica), was called in medieval language the Sunday (Dumineca) before the beginning of Lent, and brandones was the first week of this period. In mediaeval Latin the word brando had the meaning of fax, taeda, Romanian “facla”, piece of lighted wood, torch. In those days at the beginning of Lent great fires were lit, and the young danced around them. With the Romanian people, Dominica brandonum is called “Dumineca lasatului de branda” (TN – the Sunday when eating cheese ended), branda = Lat. caseus friatus. As we see, Dominica brandonum and “Dumineca lasatului de branda” have the same name, but different meanings. In any case, the primitive meaning of the name has been the pastoral, Romanian one.

- Brathy (Brathy = Brathu), a mountain in Phoenicia. Bardeton oros, var. Bardetos (Bardetus mons) in Ethiopia. In Romanian, brad, abies, pinus, larix, fir tree; bradet, pinetum, silva pinea, forest of fir trees. In the dialect of the Romanians from Meglena, bardet, fir tree forest.

- bratus, a species of tree in the southern parts of Assyria, resembling the cypress, with branches spread out and separated. The Gauls called Padi the trees which contained resin. In Romanian brad, Lat. abies, pinus, larix.

- brechion, brachium, Rom. brat (TN – arm).

- bremo, Lat. fremo, murmuro; Rom. a mugi (TN – to bellow), a murmura (TN – to murmur, about the waves of the sea), to produce confusing and prolonged sounds, a vajai (TN – to whiz), a urla (TN – to scream, about the wind and snowstorms). Romanian vreme, bad weather, with rain, snow and wind, Lat. tempestas; vreme tare, tempestas tonitrualis. As impersonal verb, vremuesce, tempestas pluvial, tempestas nivalis.

- Bruda, a locality in Dacia between Apula and Salinae, which corresponds to the place of crossing the Mures called by the Romanian people bruda and brudina, moving bridge, Lat. pons mobilis. Ital. proda (p. sponda, riva), Fr. bord.

- bruone and bruonia, a plant (Pliny, XII. XXIII), Rom. buruiana, herba inutilis. In the dialect from Calabria burrajena, lingua di bove; Ital. borrano, Mrom. burane, boiled nettles.

- Brundulus, a port at the mouths of the river Pad, in upper Italy. Rom. prund, Lat. vadosum vel arenosum littus.

- byas, a type of nocturnal birds. Rom. buha (TN – owl), Lat. bubo, noctua.

- boubon, the swelling near the genitals. Rom. buboniu and buboiu, Lat. ulcus, tumor.

- buchane, Lat. buccina, Rom. bucium (TN – Alp horn).

- Bouchatia (bucatia), was called in Greek antiquity the sacrificial banquet hold at Delphi in honor of Zeus patros. There was also the renowned oracle of Apollo, founded by the Hyperboreans. In Romanian language bucata, pl. bucate = cibus (TN – food). The word has passed also in the Hungarian language of the Secuii of Transilvania, for whom bukata means “bag”, and fel-bukatazni means “to place in the bag food for the road”.

- boucholos, cattle shepherd. In Romanian language the word has been preserved only as a personal name, Bucur, in use especially at the inhabitants of the mountains, who raise cattle. Like all the pastoral terms, the word is not of Greek origin. There is no verb in the Greek language from which could have derived the ending cholos, which is reduced to the Latin form curo and colo, to look after.

- boudalla, the name of a plant with the Dacians, lingua boum with the Romans. It is a composite word, if not a corrupt word from bubula. The first part shows that in the language of the Dacians existed the word bou = bou (TN – ox), and the second part dalla, dela, or dula (like in the names of other plants of the Dacians, diodela, propedula), corresponds to the Greek thalos from thallo, to flower; thalia, flower, Germ. Bluthe, as the plant miriophillos with the Greeks, millefolium with the Italians, is called in Kymric dialect milddail, Brit. mildelyen and milfler, Fr. millefleur.

- Boynos (Bunus), Bounaia (Bunaea). In Corinth was a temple dedicated to Juno Bunaea, founded, as Pausanias writes, by Bunus, the son of Hermes.

- boys and boos, bou, Lat. bos (TN – ox). In the composite words was used only the form bou: boubotes, boucholos, cattle shepherd. According to Varro, the prefix bou (bu) expressed in Greek composite words the idea of big, huge.

- butyrum, butter from cow milk. It is a word composed from boys, fem. cow, and tyros, cheese (Homer).

                                                                  C. K. Ch

- caballus, cal, Lat. equus (horse), especially the horse used in agriculture. With Petronius cavallus. The form “caballus” has been also used in Dacia. With the Secuii from Transilvania, Kabala, old mare.

- chachis, a sort of bread with the Egyptians. Rom. coca, Lat. libum, placenta, pasta.

- chados, amphora, Lat. cadus, Rom. cada.

- Kalasiries, a class of soldiers in Egypt, who received a certain parcel of land in order to subsist. A Pelasgian military institution. One thousand soldiers of this class had to perform military service in the royal guard. The word seems to have the same meaning as the Lat. Celeres (equites). See Celeres.

- calatores (sing. calator), servants at the college of the Arvali Brothers and other augurs, charged especially with the bringing or taking to their destination the objects entrusted to them. The word is identical with “viator”. Kalator, the name of a Trojan and of a Greek (Homer). Rom. calatoriu, viator (TN – traveler); a calatori, iter facere (TN – to travel).

- chalyba and chalybe, coliba, Lat. tugurium. Kalybe (Calybe), a locality in Thrace, and another Galybe (Galybe) in Libya.

- Kamara (Camara), city in Crete. With the Greek authors, chamara = vaulted room, Lat. camara and camera, barbarian word. In the regions of the Euxine Pontos, were called chamarai the smaller and lighter ships (corabii), built from timber without metal fastenings; when the seas were agitated, timber planks were placed on both sides, until they closed in the shape of a roof (Tacitus, Hist. 3. 47). Romanian camara, room in which are deposited clothes and other necessary things. Camara, various hamlets in Romania.

- campana, In the folk language of Hispania and Italy, instrument for the measurement of weights; statera unius lancis, Rom. cumpana (TN – balance).

- champto, to modulate the voice in songs, to sing in various tones; word borrowed from the barbarian language. Rom. a canta, Lat. canto.

- camus, a sort of strong rein. “Camus, genus asperi freni est, quo caballi superbi coerceri solent, dictus a curvitate, chamon enim Graeci curvum dicunt (Isidorus). In Greek language, chemos, Dorian chamos, genus freni vel capistrum (Suidas), “freu” (TN – rein), capestru (TN – halter). Romanian ham (TN – harness). It seems though that in the barbarian language was in use only the form ham, because Isidorus derives “camus” from chamos (curvus), and not from chemos, Dor. chamos (frenum).

- cana (chana), basket for bread, flowers and fruit. Rom. cana, urceor, Lat. urceus (TN – cup, ewer)

- channabis, in the language of the Scythians and Thracians, canepa, Lat. cannabis.

- chanthalios onos (Plato), a larger ass used for transport. Barbarian word, passed also in Latin under the form cantherius and canterius, gelded horse, Rom. catar (mulus).

- Kapomalba (Capomalva), castle in Dardania, a name with a barbarian Latin form.

- Capua and Capye, city in Etruria, the meaning being campestris ager (Livy, IV. 36). Capua a campo dicta (Plin. III. 5. 39). Rom. campie.

- charabos, carabus with Pliny, Hisp. caraba, small boat. In med. Lat. curabii and garabi (linters celeresque galeae). Rom. corabia, Lat. navis.

- charopithla, the name of a plant with the Dacians. With the Romans herba philicla. It seems to be dianthus caryophyllus, Rom. garofa, garofita.

- Karpates oros (Carpates mons), the highest point of the mountain chain in the northern parts of Dacia. With Homer, an island situated between Crete and Rhodes is called Krapathos. From the form used by Homer, the name of the mountain “Carpates” corresponds to the Romanian participle crepat, Lat. crepatus (TN – cracked), with a dislocated r, like in chartos and chratos. In popular Romanian language are called crepaturi, sing. crepatura, the rocky and steep mountains. We find the same meaning with Avienus: Carpathus (Crapathus), hic rupes attolitur (Descr. Orb. 671).

- chassiteros, white lead, Lat. stannum, cassiterus, Rom. cositoriu (TN – tin). According to Herodotus, the lead and electrum came from the extreme barbarian parts. The ancient metallurgical terminology is of barbarian origin. Kassiteros seems to derive from the verb a cose, consuere (TN – to sew), to tie, to unite; s. cusatoriu (TN – he who sews)

- Kasaera (Caseera), a castle in the Rhodope mountains, repaired by Justinian. Rom. casaria, the place where is prepared or sold casul (TN – cheese). Macedorom. casari, sheepfold; Lat. casearia officina, Sp. quesera, Port. queijeria. On the territory of Romania, a number of places have the name Casarie.

- Cattuzi, name by which were called by the Barbarians the dwarves who dwelt towards south from the mouths of the Danube, near the sea. Cotutu, personal co-name in the western parts of Romania (Oltenia).

- chaycha and chaychos, patera, Lat. caucus and caucius, Rom. cauc, vase for drawing water for drinking.

- Caucalandensis region, a mountainous region in Dacia. Cocala, in Romanian epic songs is the name of a wood in the Olt mountains.

- cavo and cavus, had in ancient barbarian language the meaning of caballus, cavallus, cal, horse. From this derived in Romanian covaciu, potcovariu (TN – blacksmith). Macedorom. cavala, mounted, cal di cavala, horse for mounting.

- Cebanus caseus, a sort of cas, cheese, brought from Liguria to Rome. Cebenna mons, near the Rhodan. Xuban, a divinity in the Pyrenean regions. In Romanian cioban, ovium pastor, shepherd. Cioban, name of hills and valleys in Romania.

- Celeres (sing. celer, Gr. cheles and cheler), equites, horse rider. In earlier times the cavalry corps of the Romans was composed of the wealthiest citizens and had the name Celeres, and the commander of the cavalry was called magister Celerum. The word is reduced to the root cal (equus) and corresponds to an ancient military term from the Romanian language, calariu (Voronetian Codex, 56). Mai mare al calarilor is the same title as Magister celerum. In ancient Greek language, cheles meant cal de calarit (TN – riding horse). Keles, cheler also had the meaning of calaret, rider. Rom. calari and calarasi.

- cheleuthos, cale, Lat. via, iter (TN – road). Word of barbarian origin. Rom. calauz, calauza, dux itineris (TN – guide). Etym. from cale, Lat. callis.

- cheletizein, a calari (to ride).

- Kepra, Khepra and Khopri, a co-name of Tum Harmakhis or Uranos. In regard to the meaning of the word, the Egyptian papyri mention “cornele lui Kepra” (TN – the horns of Kepra). Without doubt the name derives from the barbarian word capra (TN – goat). According to the Roman Martirolog (2 March), the goat head (caput caprae) had also been venerated by the Longobardi. In the upper parts of Moldova, the young bachelors go around the village “cu capra” (TN – with the goat) in the New Year’s day (feast day consecrated in Romanian folk customs to Toma the rich, called Tum by the Egyptians).

- ceres (acus. cererem), bread for the Sabines. Rom. cir, ciris.

- Ceret, ancient city in Hispania Baetica. Kerata, ta (Cerata), two mountains which separated Attica from Megaris. Rom. ceret, woods of cer, Lat. silva cerrea.

- ceria, drink made of cereals in Hispania. See ceres.

- Cerus = Coelus, ceriul (TN – sky), personified in the Saliare songs and in Romanian carols. With Festus, Cerus manus.

- chetophagos (cetophagus). Sibylla Erythrea tells us in some verses that her father had been chetophagos, in Latin translation “cetophagos”, meaning eater of marine monsters. Sibylla Erythrea had written in the barbarian language. She could not say that her father had been eating whales, or marine monsters. The first part of the word has an entirely different meaning. In mediaeval Greek language, pata and pita means “cake, bread”. Pita is the same word as the Rom. pita and chita, bread, Lat. panis. The word has existed also in the language of the populations between Tisa and the Danube, and pitar means camara (TN – pantry) in which are kept the objects needed for the making of bread, and the cupboards with various aliments.

- chalchos, arama, copper, Lat. aes; metallon chalchoy, aeraria metalla (Strabo). In Latin language Vulcanus or Volcanus is the same word as the Greek chalcheys, faber aerarius (Homer). About Vulcan was said that he had been the first to find the way to work the copper, etc. The ancient traces of this word of barbarian origin can be found even today in the Romanian language. Vulcan, mountain, and Valcau, villages, in the metalliferous regions of Transilvania. Valced (adjedtive), and valcedela (noun), express the purple bruising on the body as a result of hitting something, from where the verb a valcedi, Lat. suggilare, livere (TN – to bruise).

- Chalibes (Chalybes), especially the workers of metals from the north of Thrace. The word is barbarian and probably derives from chalybe, coliba, Lat. tugurium (TN – hut), from where colibas, the dweller of a hut.

- chlaina, vestment worn over something else, Latin laena. Laena, quod de lana multa, duarum etiam togarum instar (Varro, L. L.), Rom. haina, vestimentum.

- Khons, Khonsu, Khunsu, one of the ancient kings of Egyptian Thebes, about who it was said that he had destroyed all his enemies. With the Romans, Consus was a divinity venerated even in the times of Romulus. With Cedrenus, Ianus has also the name Consacus. Probably Khons, Khonsu was only a title or political position, as “Consul” with the Romans.

- choros, hora, dance in a circle, of a number of people; Mrom. cor; Lat. chorea. The Hyperboreans, writes Diodorus, had the custom to play the cythera and make “hore” (chitharixein chai choreyein) during the entire time of the great feast of Apollo the Hyperborean. The ancients, writes Suidas, called choreia a dance with songs.

- chinouboila, the name of a plant with the Dacians. With Apuleius, cinubula (var. dinupula); with the Greeks ampelos leucha, Germ. Hunds-Kurbiss. The Dacian word is composed from chinou, cane, dog, (Greek chyon) and bula, noun pula, Rom. pula, virile member, Lat. veretrum penis; a word which is also applied in the names of plants.

- Kleisoyra (Clisura), castle in the Thraco-Illyrian regions. The word is of barbarian origin from the eastern parts of Europe, and has been used also in military Roman language. The Romans, writes Suidas, called the fortifications of the mountains chleisoyrai = claustra. Etym. from claudere, Rom. inchidere = inclidere (TN – closure), part. Inchis, Mrom. inclis (TN – closed).

- chocchora, pie with figs and walnuts, prepared for sacrifices by the inhabitants of Delos. Rom. cocorada, pie baked in the oven, Lat. placenta farta.

- chocchux, cuc (cookoo). In the popular language of Hispania cucus instead of “cuculus”.

- Cocosates, a population in Gallia Aquitanica (Pliny. IV. 19); Rom. cocosat (pl. cocosati), gibbus, hunchback.

- choiranos, domn, prince, with Homer, general war commander, chief of the army, Lat. dominus, princes, imperator; from where derives also Kurinos, Quirinus, as Ianus and Romulus had been called. Ovid explains Quirinus with Bellicus Deus. Other forms of the same word were with the Romans Curiatius and curator. In ancient Romanian language also existed the word curatul with the meaning of imperat, emperor (Cod. Voron. 70).

- cholone, collis, altitude. Kullane (Cullene), the highest mountain in Arcadia. Kullane (Cullene), village and promontory in the province Elis. Lat. collina, Rom. colnic (TN – low hill).

- choliba, frumentum coctum (Suidas). Rom. coliva, boiled wheat which is given as alms in the memory of the deceased.

- choma, capillus, the hair on the head, Lat. coma, Rom. coma.

- chopta, genus placentae. With Martial, copta, a species of pie. The word corresponds to the Rom. adjective copta (TN – baked), and the noun cocatura (TN – dough).

- Corbus, personal name in Noricum, Rom. corb, Lat. corvus (TN – raven).

- Kotulos (Cotylus = Cotulus), a hill on the Ida mountain, where was the source of the river Scamandrus (Strabo). Cot (TN – elbow), art. cotul, Lat. flexus, sinus, angulus, is a word very much used in Romanian topical names: Cotul baltii, Cotul apei, cotul garlei, Cotul vaii, Cotul podului, all connected with water. In an answer given by the oracle of Dodona to the Pelasgians who had migrated to Italy, Kotyle (Cotule) was a place near water.

- chotiata, the name of a plant with the Dacians, agrostis with the Greeks, gramen with the Romans. In the rustic language of Africa iebal. From its synonyms, chotiata seems to be identical with ierba de camp (TN – plain grass), Germ. Feldgras, Rom. costreiu. Mrom. cotala, straw dust.

- choxa, posterior genu pars. Lat. coxa; Rom. copsa, thigh.

- Cozeulodoizeso (var. Cozeulodorieso), the first words of a Saliar Roman song. In Romanian folk carols, the same words appear under the form Colo’n jos mai din jos (see Ch. XXXVIII. 3).

- Kragos (Cragus), the highest mountain of Lycia, which had two branches: one Cragus, where were the caves of the barbarian gods, and another, Anticragus. In Romanian language crac, means “crus”, “pes”, “ramus”, branch. Crac, art. Cracul, general names for the ramifications of mountains on the territory of the Romanian countries.

- chrademnon, the veil given to a girl when getting married (Homer). The word seems to be in connection with the Romanian term credinta (TN – trust) and incredintare (to entrust), Lat. sponsalia. The Romanian people have the custom that the suitor should give the girl a ring called “inelul de credinta” (TN – the ring of trust), or simply credinta, and the girl to give him a handkerchief called “naframa de credinta”, or simply credinta.

- chreion, rex, princes, late imperans; chreion ‘Agamemnon; fem. chreiousa (Homer), chreon with Pindar., Romanian craiu, fem. craiesa.

- Kribitzoi (Cribitzi), a Scythian people who dwelt at the sources of the rivers Volga, Duna and Dneper. In Romanian crivetu (TN – read crivetzu), the cold and harsh northern wind, Lat. aquilo. In Romanian epic songs, Crivetu, mythical personality, the domn of the northern regions, who has his dwelling in “Fantana Gerului” (TN – the fountain of frost). Frost = Greek chryos.

- chroustane, the name of a plant with the Dacians, chelidonion mega with the Greeks, fabium with the Romans, krezdyne with the Lituanians. In Romanian carstinesa, crestenesa, cristinesca (gratiola office.), a medicinal herb.

- chucholida, var. choicholida, the name of plant with the Dacians, vesicalis with the Romans, Daci colida with Apuleius. In the Lombard dialect, coccola is Uva ursi. In Sicily, colutia is the same plant as “erba vesicaria”, Lat. colutea hirsuta, Greek cholutea, berberis. In the language of the Secuii of Transilvania kokolyza is the plant called afina, pl. afine (TN – blackberry), word borrowed from the Romanians, diminutive from coccolo in the Lombard dialect. In ancient Hispanic language, cocolubis, a species of grapes.

- chullastes, a sort of food with the Egyptians, made of wheat flour. In Romanian language colesa, and culesa, boiled, thick, dish, made from wheat flour; Macedorom. culeas, porridge, flour boiled with water.

- chymindis (cymindis = cumindis), the popular name of a mountain bird which according to Homer was called chalchis in the language of the gods. With Pliny, cymindis is nocturnes accipiter, Rom. soim (TN – hawk), a wild bird tamed by Romanian hunters, and used for catching other birds, Lat. falco, Sp. halcon. The Greek popular name seems to correspond to the Romanian word cuminte, Lat. intelligens.

- chynas (acc. pl.) cani, dogs. According to Plato, word borrowed by the Greeks from the barbarians. The ancients, writes Varro, said canes, instead of canis.

- chypellon, cup (Homer). The diminutive form from Lat. cupa, Rom. cupa.

- kura, river, flowing fresh water, Lat. rivulus, in the language of the inhabitants of Bogos in Ethiopia. Etym. from curro, Rom. a cure, a curge, to flow. Courug, the name of a river on the territory of Hungary in the Middle Ages.

- curio. The most ancient tribes from which the population of Rome was composed, were divided in 10 curia each, at the head of which was a curio; word which derives from the same root as the Greek chyrios, domn, the curator of an estate. The word has existed also in the popular language of Pannonia under the form curia, domn, lord; it may be that it also had the meaning of primar (TN – mayor) of a rural village (vilicus).

 

.D.

 

- daba, daya and deba, Dacian word, which appears as an ending in the names of a number of cities and localities in Dacia, lower Mesia, Thrace, Illyria and Germania. The original meaning of the word seems to have been identical with taba, hill, mountain, rock (see taba). In antiquity the Dacians were also called Dai and Davi and were considered as a people “de munteni” (TN – from the mountains). So, Davi meant nothing else but Munteni, as opposed to the people of the plains, called by the Greeks Getai, Gaitai, meaning “terani” (TN – peasants) from ga or gaia, terra, earth; Rom. “tera”. Later the word daba or daya appeared with the meaning of fortified place, citadel, as results from the names of the localities Dochidaua, Petrodaua, Marchodaua, Pamidaua, Piaroboridaua. Traces of this word are found even today on the territory of the countries inhabited by Romanians: Deva, castrum in Transilvania; Deva, ruins of citadel on a mountain in Bihor county; Devin, civitas Moraviae, castrum Dyuen or Deven in Poson county (Hungary). In Romanian language duba, prison, Lat. carcer. In some codexes of Ptolemy, dava or daba is replaced with dana, as in Patridana, Petrodana, Marcodana, etc, or with dabna, as in Ramidabna, where “dana” corresponds to dunum = dubnum, Rom. damb (TN – hillock).

- dachru (Homer), Lat. lacrima, archaic form dacrima, Rom. lacrima (TN – tear). The changing of l in d was a particularity of the Arimic dialect. In the Armerine dialect from Scily ddarma = lacrima.

- dais, daidos (Homer), torch from fir timber. Dades, faces (Suidas); Rom. zada, splinter of resinous timber, serving as torch; Mrom. dzada, splinter of fir tree.

- damao and damnao, Lat. domare, Rom. a domoli (TN – to tame) the animals, to defeat, to subject. The word domare has existed also in the language of the populations of Dacia, as it appears in the form domar, preserved iin the language of the Hutulii of Bucovina, with the meaning of “a preda vitele sale in paza cuiva” (TN – to give your cattle in the care of someone).

- damna, the end part of the word Poludamna, as was called the wife of Thon or Thumis, the most ancient Egyptian king. A Greek form of the word Domna = domina.

- Damnaustra and Dunnaustra, a popular divinity invoked in some antique incantations. Composed word, which corresponds to the Romanian form Domna nostra (TN – our Lady).

- Damno (Damno). Agenor, the son of Neptune, the king of Pheonicia, had married Damno, the daughter of Belus, according to Pherecydes. It is the same word as Domna.

- Damonno var. Damano (Damonno, Damano), the wife of king Cadus of Lydia. All these various forms: Damna, Damno, Damonno and Damano, show us that the honorific title of “Domna” for the wives of kings existed even in Pelasgian antiquity.

- Damnus, var. Dimnos, one of the ancient kings of the Homeritii of Arabia, who has lived, as it is believed, in the time of the Christians’ persecutions. We have here only a traditional title of sovereignty.

- danaoi, Lat. mortui, barbarian word. The Romans called Feriae denicales or denecales the religious ceremonies of purifying the house of the deceased. Rom. denie, divine nocturne mass in the week before Easter, Lat. pervigilium.

- dasplatis, an epithet of the Erinnies or Furies, with the meaning of terrifying. Like the Gorgons, the Furies were represented with small serpents in their hair. The epithet is of barbarian origin. The original meaning of the word dasplatis had been despletit, “crinibus passis”, unbraided hair. In Romanian incantations are mentioned as wicked spirits Fetele despletite (TN – the girls with unbraided hair), or Fata displetita.

- Dalos (Delos), island of the Aegean Sea, inhabited in original times by a colony of Hyperborean Pelasgians. On the hill Cynthus of Delos was the renowned temple of Apollo, founded by them. Rom. del, Lat. collis, hill.

- descindentes (carmen), an ancient expression in the Acts of the Arvali Brothers, replaced later by the words carmen dicentes. Descindentes is a barbarian word, which corresponds to the Romanian a descanta, to recite magical verses in order to heal the sick.

- Dia (Dia), dies, in the language of the Pelasgians of Crete, day. Istrorom. dia, Rom. di.

- Dia (Dea Dia), an ancient barbarian divinity in Latium, overseeing the pastoral and agricultural life, but entirely ignored by the Roman authors. The temple of Dea Dia was in Via Campana close to Rome, and was administered by the College of the Arvali Brothers. Dea Dia represented the divinity of the day. In her honor were hold the religious ceremonies “prima luce”, “sub divo”, “sub diu”, or “sub dio”. As sacrifices, were brought “vacca alba”, “purcilla alba” (TN – white cow and sow), milk and honey. The insignia of the priests were “infula alba”. They carried out the religious ceremonies “toralibus albis” and ate the sacrifice in “coenatoria alba” (Henzen, Acta Fr. arv.). Dea Dia was a primordial divinity. Her place of honor was in front of all the great gods, and she received the first sacrifice. As magister of the college we find one Valerius Trebicius Decianus, one C. Vitorius Hosidius Geta, one Q. Tillius Sassus, one Val. Homullus, etc.

- dielia, the name of plant with the Dacians; with the Romans insana and Apollinaris (herba); with the Gauls bilinountia. And the same name with Apuleius, Galli belinuntia, Daci dielia. From its synonims in the Latin and Gallic languages, this plant seems to be identical with bolundarita, datura stramonium, belend in ancient Slav language. By name, dielia seems to be one of the medicinal herbs named by the Romanian people ierburi din Iele, which are used for the healing of those damaged by Iele or Densele (TN – wicked feminine spirits). We have here a composite word: di-elia = de iele, very important for the forms of the Dacian language.

- deile, the time of day at noon, or the time during the entire course of the day: deile proia, the time before noon or morning; deile opsia, the time of the afternoon, or towards evening. The meaning of the word has been di (TN – day). At deile, noon in the language of Homer, corresponds in Macedo-Romanian. to the form dzua prandzului = nameda mare (TN – the big noon). The word has been in use in Pannonia also, Hung. del is the time of the day at noon.

- docha (Homer), vase or measure for liquids. Catalan doga, Rom. doga, pl. doge, the lateral slats of a wooden vase.

- doioi, instead of dyo, Rom. doi (TN – two).

- Domnus and Domna, majestic titles of the ancient Pelasgian kings; later, traditional honorific titles of the great divinities. “Iancus Ianes duonus, dunus Ianus” in the Carmina Saliare, where “duonus” corresponds to the Spanish provincial form don. Domno Saturno, Iovi Domno, Domno et Domnae on an inscription in Dacia, Domna Artemix, Domna Sotera, the name of Proserpina on a coin of the city Cyzicum. In the traditions of the Pelasgian popoulations, “Domnus” and “Domna” as majestic titles, had deep roots. The Roman people, tells us Isidorus, had asked that Augustus received also the title Dominus. But beginning with the times of Sept. Severus, all the Roman emperors adopted the title Dominus also, which on the strength of the ancient traditions was placed before “Augustus” and “Imperator”: Dominus noster Augustus Imperator (C. I. L. vol. III).

- Domna, Domnica, personal feminine names in Pannonia.

- Domnaedius and Dominaedius, word also used in pagan epigraphy. In Christian times used as respectful title for the divine majesty. Lat. m. Dominus deus; In “Formola di confessione” from 1040-95, dominideu, Rom. Dumnedeu and Dumniziu, Ital. domeneddio, Pr. Domedieu, Fr. dombre-dieu.

- doron (dora theon) with Homer, gift destined to the divinities, Lat. donum, Rom. dar.

- drocila, the name of a plant with the Dacians. In Romanian dracila or dracia is the name of a thorny plant, berberis vulgaris, spina acida, Hisp. dragoncilla, Ital. dragoncello.

- dromos, place for running, Rom. drum, via, iter (TN – road).

- Druides or Druidae, were the ancient priests, teachers and judges of the Gauls, the women being named Druias and Druis. They formed a social class called genus by Caesar. The word had in the beginning the same meanins as “Fratres”, as were called by the Romans the priests of the College of the Arvalii. In Greek phrator (phratar) was the member of a phratria, a class, tribe, or nation. In Italian drudo, druda, Fr. drut, druda, friend, Slav. drug. In medieval France, druchte had the meaning “entrusted girl” or engaged, Lat. sponsata. In the Romanian language of Moldova, drusce (sing. drusca) are the bridesmaids.

- doycha or doychas, term used by the Byzantine writers, Lat. dux. The word belongs to the ancient barbarian language like riga, rigas. Under the form duca, the word also appears on the territory of the countries inhabited by Romanians.

- Dumnorix, a prince of the Eduii of Gallia. Name composed from dumno (Domnus) and rix (dux, rege, king).

- Dynamis (Dunamis), a queen from the Bosporan Pontos. The word is reduced to the ancient form domina = domna, the last two syllables being having changed places. Dunamene (Dunamene), one of the daughters of Nereus (Negru), a granddaughter of the Ocean.

- dunum. In Roman geography, the last word in the names of a number of cities in northern Italy, Helvetia, Hispania, Gallia (Augustodunum, Lugdunum), Britannia, Germania, Pannonia, Dacia (Noviodunum) and Hem peninsula. By its geographical extension, the word had belonged to the barbarian or Pelasgian language. The writers of the 11th century explain “dunum” by mons. For Dufresne, dunum = collis. Later it had the meaning of fortified place, locus numitus, castrum. In some codexes of Ptolemy, dava or daba from the names of Dacian cities was replaced by dana and dabna, the same word as dunum, Rom. damb.

- Dourboulin (Durbulie), a castle in Dardania, repaired in the time of Justinian; its name probably taken from the name of some river. In Romanian turbure, Lat. turbidus, turbulentus.

- Doysmanes (Dusmanes), a castle in theThraco-Illyrian regions, repaired by Justinian. Rom. dusman, pl. dusmani (TN – enemy), Lat. inimicus, hostis.

- dusmeneia, inimicitiae, Rom. dusmania (TN – enmity).

- dusmenos, adv. Rom. dusmanos (TN – inimical).

- Dzu, Dzul, Dhu and Du, a title given to the Homerite princes of Arabia, seemingly having the meaning of master, owner of. To the name of the Ethiopian kings was added at the beginning the word za. The meaning of these particles Dzu and Za, is deu (TN – god). The Ethiopians, writes Strabo, venerated their kings as dei (TN – gods). Macedorom. dza once meant “deu”, as results from the word used today Dumnidza = Dumnedeu.

 

.E.

 

- ear, Lat. ver, Rom. primavara (TN – spring)

- embruon, embryon, the germ not yet developed; the fruit which starts to form in the womb of the mother. In Romanian the word is used only for plants, under the form of sembure, Lat. nucleus, semen.

- eniautos, anul acelasi (TN – the same year). See anis.

- anis, bos anniculus, annotinus. Rom. notin, one year old.

- epeetanos, cat dureaza anul (TN – as long as this year lasts). A composite word. The last part corresponds to annus, as in the Romanian form astan, Mrom. estan (TN – this year).

- Epona, divinity protecting the horses. Form similar with Bubona, the protecting divinity of the horned cattle. The word has belonged to the barbarian provinces. In ancient popular language has also existed, as we see, the term epa for equa, Rom. iepa. See Eporedias.

- Eporedias. Composite word, epo-redias, in which the last part corresponds to the Romanian rendas, rendas de cai (TN – stable boy), Fr. valet d’ecurie.

- ar, ver, Rom. vara (TN – summer).

- ergastulum, disciplinary and working house for slaves. Word sometimes synonymous with stabulum. Rom. grasdiu, building for the horses, Lat.equile (TN – stable).

- esca, tinder, in the popular language of Hispania.

- eschara, hearth, Lat. focus. Rom. sfara, the steam and thick smoke in the kitchen.

- ‘Exampaios (Exampaeus), Scythian word with the meaning ‘Irai odoi, sacrae viae (Herod.). The word is composed from exam (Rom. sam = sanctus) and paios = paia, in Latin via, vea and bia. In Dacia and Pannonia instead of viae it was also said biae. The sacred roads were an ancient Pelasgian institution.

- explaius mons, mountin with a level terrain at the top. Romanian munte plaiu.

 

.F. Ph.

 

- phantana, the lat part of the word Loupophantana, the name of a castle in the Thraco-Illyrian regions. Fontana instead of fons with the Latin Gromaticii.

- phatai, Fata and Fatae. With Hesiodus, the Gorgons have the epithet oyphatai, with the meaning of “ineffablies”, frightening, impossible to describe. In Latin inscriptions, Fata and Fatae are mythological beings, identical sometimes with the Parcae. The sister or wife of Faunus has the name Fatua with the Roman authors, but with Dionysius she is called chore, meaning fata (TN – girl). With the Greeks Proserpina had also the name Pherrephatta; In Beotia though she was called chore, fata. With Ausonius, the Graces appear also with the name Fata. “Tres Charites, tria Fata”. In Latin inscriptions is also used the singular Fata for the Parcae. In Romanian folk incantations are mentioned “Fete curate” (TN – well meaning girls), and “Fete necurate” (TN – wicked girls). It results therefore that the names Fata and Fatae, attributed in ancient times to some femeine divinities, had in the beginning the meaning of chore, Rom. fata, pl. fete.

- phatria, collegium; phatre, phratra, phratre, phratria, tribe composed of people who belonged to the same kin or clan. Etym. from frater, Rom. frate, brother.

- phegos, Rom. fag, beech tree.

- phar, in the Eolian dialect instead of thar, wild or monstruous animal. Rom. fera, ferocious animal, Lat. fera.

- Flora, feminine name in Dalmatia, Noricum and Pannonia, Rom. Florea.

- Phloria, var. Phloryia (Floria, Floruia), locality in Marueitania.

- focacius, in the rustic language of Hispania pie baked in ash, Lat. cinere coctus, Rom. pogace, panis subcinericius.

- phor, Lat. fur, Rom. fur, thief.

- forda, in ancient Latin language vacca praegnans, pregnant cow. The word had also existed in the barbarian language of Pannonia. In some Hungarian dialects, horda means “cow with calf”. We also note that the Romanian women of Transilvania (Hateg) say towards the cows, when they do not stand well during milking, forto!

- phormos, a vestment used by seamen. The word does not belong to the Greek language. Etym. from Lat. forma, Rom. forma (TN – form), adj. formosus, Rom. frumos (TN – beautiful).

- framea, pl. frameae, were called by the Germans the lances (hastes) with a thin and short iron, also used by the Armoricii of Galllia. With Juvenal, framea is the iron sword of Mars. The etymology is reduced to ferrum, ferramen. Framea seems to have been identical with hasta ferrata of the Romans.

- Phrateria (Phrateria), a locality in Dacia.

- phricha, horror, Rom. frica (TN – fear).

- phthois, nomen placentae; in use especially at the oracle of Delphi. The word corresponds to the Rom. pitoiu (from pita, bread), big bread.

- phuga, Lat. fuga, Rom. fuga (TN – run); phugadichos, Rom. fugariu (TN – fugitive); phuginda, adverb, Rom. fugind (TN – to play while running); as a verb, pheygo, a fugi, to run. In the Romanian language exists also the form feiga = fuga.

 

.G.

 

- Gabreta sule (Gabreta silva), a vast forest in the eastern regions of Germania, situated downwards from the Sudeti mountains. A corrupt form of the name Karpates oros.

- Gadir, gard (TN – fence) in the language of the inhabitants from Carthage.

- Gainas (Gainas), Roman general in the service of Arcadius (395 – 400ad), originating from the northern parts of Istru. Rom. gaina, Lat. gallina, co-name Gaina (TN – hen).

- Gaitai, Getai, sing. Gaites, and Getes (Gaetae, Getae, sing. Geta and Getes), this is how the Greek authors called the inhabitants of the southern parts of Dacia. In Dacia though, “Getae” had never been a national ethnic name. We do not find any trace of this word in the topical nomenclature of the countries from the Danube and the Carpathians. In the Acts of St. Filip, who lived in the times of Diocletian (304ad), is mentioned a village near Adrianopol, with fine tilled fields and vineyards, called Getistyrum, in Latin translation “locus possessorum”. Here “Geti” has the meaning of “possessors”, and styrum = sturum is tranxslated as “locus”. In Greek language gates or geites meant “agricol”, “rustic”. With Hesychius, the Gaitai are georgoi, earth tillers, peasants. Therefore the name Gaitai and Getai, under which the populations from the southern parts of Dacia figure with the Greek authors, had the meaning of Terani (TN – peasants), as the inhabitants of the southern parts of the Carpathians are called even today Terani, meaning from Tera (TN – country) or from Tera Romanesca. The name “Terani” used for the Getae had exited also in antiquity.A fragment preserved from the Greek historian Theopompos mentions a population of Thrace named Zeranii. “Zeranioi, ethnos Thraches” (Steph. Byz.). We note that in older times, under the geographical name of Thracia were also meant the regions from the north of the lower Istru. The Scythians themselves were considered as a Thracic people (Steph. Byz.).

- galena, lead sulphate, in the language of the workers of the mines of Hispania. Rom. galita, iron oxide.

- Galane, a nymph, granddaughter of the river Oceanos.

- galgulus, golden blackbird, gagyle with the Bithynians, Thracians and Lydians. In the Pannonic language gurgula, in the verses recited by children in Hungaria. Rom. grangure.

- gaqua, apa (TN – water) in the language of the inhabitants of Bogos.

- Garganus, mountain in Apulia, near the Adriatic Sea. Gargaron oros, the highest peak of the Ida mountain, near Troy. In Rom. gorgan, tumul(us), movila, hillock. Gorgan, a number of names of mountains and villages in Romania and Galitia. In popular French language galgal = tumulus.

- Gayraina (Gauraena), a locality in Cappadocia. In Romania: Gaureana, Gaureni, names of villages and places.

- Gaurus mons in Campania, between Cumae and Napoli. Gayron oros (Gaurus) in Ethiopia. Gaura mons in the Alpes. In Romanian gaura (TN – hole), caverna, groapa.

- gaya, hawk in the language of the inhabitants of Bogos in Ethiopia. Rom. gaia, Germ. Huhnergeier.

- gelas, king in the language of the Carii of Asia Minor. The word was spread iin antiquity in all the regions near the Black Sea. According to the Arab writer Ibn Dasta (11th century), the Prince of the Hungarians, when they were settled in the lower parts of the river Nipru and Bug, was called Dschille (Gille). And Const. Prophyrogenitul, speaking about the Hungarians after they had occupied Pannonia, tells us that in the political hierarchy of the Hungarians, apart from the great Prince, o megas archon, also existed two high functions, one Gylas and the other Carchas, which were not proper names, but positions, but Gylas was higher. The name Gylas or Gelas in the history of Hungary appears only on the territory of Transilvania. The anonymous chronicler of king Bela tells us that in the time when the Hungarians had first occupied Transilvania, one so-called Gelou reigned over that country. Gelou quidam blacus dominium tenebat. Another Domn of Transilvania, from the times of king St.Stephan, has in Hungarian chronicles the name gyla, gula and gyula, a simple title of his political function. The word was also used by the Cumans. The ancient Hungarian chronicles mention Oslu or Osul, a commander of the Cuman duke Gyula. The traces of this name appear in the region from the Istru also in Greek antiquity. Herodotus communicates a tradition according to which a son of Hercules, born of Echidna (in the country of the Arimii), brother with Agathyrsus, was called Gelonus, who in the end, being forced to migrate, had become king of the Gelonii near the Meotic Lake. The word seems to have existed also with the Trojans. Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, the first king in Alba Longa, also had the co-name Julus, Julo with Virgil, a political title or function.

- Gemellomoyntes (Gemellomuntes), a castle near the Istru, repaired by Justinian. Pliny mentions the heights Gemelli colles in Sicily. On the territory of Romania: Gemena and Gemenul, mountains, hills and forests.

- Gemenos (Gemenus), a castle in the Epirus, repaired by Justinian.

- Gerros potamos (Gerrhus), a river on the territory of the Scythians, between Borysthenes and Tanais. In Romanian epic poems is mentioned Fantana Gerului (TN – the Well of the Frost0, where was the residence of the northern king, called Crivetu. In Romanian language ger, Lat. gelus. Ger, stream in Romania, Covurlui district; Ger, river in Ethiopia.

- Gesclitos, the name of a place and cave in the northern parts of Thrace, from where issued the strong northern wind. The word derives probably from a popular form of the verb discludo, loc deschis (TN – open place), as in Greek language had also existed the word chlathron, padlock, from chleio, a inchide, to close.

- glesum, was called in the barbarian language a variety of amber which was gathered from the southern shore of the Baltic Sea. Rom. glasa (glaja), Lat. vitrum.

- glossa, the language of people and animals, speech. Rom. glas, voice, Fr. glas, Greek chlazo, to sound, to shout or to sing loudly (Homer).

- gnoma and gnome, opinion, proposal, counsel, assembly, Lat. opinion, propositum, consilium deliberation. In Romanian language a gomoni, to understand each other, to speak. In Romanian carols: “gomon (assembly) of saints and angels”; gomona (the speech) of angels”.

- Gnoyros (Gnurus = Niurus), the father of Anacharsis, the great philosopher of the Scythians, a word which in the ancient barbarian dialect of the shepherd Scythians meant negru (TN – black), see Ch.XXXIII.26).

- goneyo, to give birth, to produce; gona, goneia, birth, production. Rom. a goni (TN – to chase away), Lat. salire, inire, speaking of animals

- gonolata, the name of plant with the Dacians, columba with the Romans. By its form and meaning, gonoleta is a diminutive of “columba”. In Romanian carols from the western Carpathians, goloni means pidgeons. Gonoleta corresponds therefore to an ancient dialectal form golom(b)eta, in which the consonants l and m = n had been dislocated.

- Gradus, was called in the popular language of Rome the place where the palace of Remus had been. Gradus were also called in the time of Valentinianus (364-9ad) certain edifices of Rome, built on high and enclosed spaces, where the wheat and bread destined for distribution to the population were kept. Gradus Massilianorum, a castle used as storage by the traders of Massilia, near the nmouths of the rhodan. Gradus and Gradense castrum was also called a small island in the port of Aquileea, where was the castle and residence of the patriarch. Grandeton (Grandetum), a castle repaired by Justinian in the Thraco-Illyrian regions. The words grad, gradisce and gradetu, widespread in the eastern parts of Europe, belong to the Pelasgian barbarian language.

- Grynion (Grunium) with Strabo; Grynium = Grunium with Pliny; Gryneia (Grunia) with Herodotus, a city in Asia Minor near the Aegean Sea, northwards of the territory of Blachia of Aristotle. Romanian gruniu and gruiu, earth mound, funerary tumulus, hillock, hill. Lat. grumus.

- Gurai (Gurae), a sea strait near Eubea, with a strong current (Homer). Rom. gura (TN – mouth), Lat. gula, os, orificium. As topographical names: Gura, mountain pass in Transilvania; Gura plaiului, mountain; Gura vaii, and a number of villages.

- gustare, in the Acts of the Arvali Brothers: “ex sacrificio gustare”, a gusta, to eat, to take a snack from the meat and blood of the victims sacrificed to the divinities. In Romanian epic songs gostia, Lat. gustatio.

 

.H.

 

- Hakahakahar. In Egyptian papyri the name of the “holy cow”, consecrated to the divinity Isis. Word composed: Haka – hakahar = vacca vaccar(um), the cow of the cows. The same linguistic phenomenon appears with the ancient Egyptians as with the Romans. The long vowels were often doubled and an h placed between them. With the Romans Ma(h)arcus = Marcus, with the Egyptians Haka-haka(h)ar = haka-hakar.

- Edera (hedera), the name of a plant with the Dacians, Greek chissos, Romanian iedera, Lat. hedera (TN – ivy).

- adypnous, agnus recens natus. Composite word, used in the oracles of Apollo at Delphi. Corresponds to the Romanian words iedu nou, hoedus novus, meaning young kid.

- ‘Ephaistos and ‘Aphaistos, the name of Vulcan with the Greeks, honored especially as god of fire. With the Egyptians he was called Opas. In reality “Hephaistos” and “Opas” were the popular barbarian names of the feast day consecrated to Vulcan, called by the Greeks lampadephoria, when people were running on the streets with lighted lamps or torches. The same traditional festivity still exists today with the Romanian people, and is called Opaite and Opaitiu. It is celebrated at the beginning of Lent, on the Saturday or Sunday, before the starting of the cheese fast, when fires are lighted in many places and the young people sing, dance and shout. In Romanian language hopaitiu and opaitiu means peasant lamp, Lat. lucerna, which is made of a clay pot in which is placed oil and a wick which is lighted and gives light like a votive light.

- ‘Elixoia (Helixoea), an island in the regions of the Hyperboreans, identical from a geographical point of view with the island Leuce from the mouths of Istru, also called Macaron, the island of the blessed, which on the Tab. Peut. appears with the name Ins. Helix

- ippe, Rom. iepa, Lat. equa (TN – mare).

- Hister and Ister (‘Istros), was called in antiquity the course of the Danube from the cataracts to the sea. Under this form the word was of Getic origin. Danubius lingua Bessorum Hister vocatur (Jorn. Get. 12).

- udor, water. According to Plato, a barbarian word, which we find spread to the extreme western parts. Oyedra (Vedra), river in Britannia; Oyidros (Vidrus), river in Germania. On the territory inhabited by the Romanians, Vidra, the name of a number of rivers; Vidros, a big water in Romanian epic poems: “Because Vidrosul is deep, like from the sky to the earth” (Tocil. Mater. p. 50). Etym. from udo, Rom. a uda (TN – to water).

 

.I.

 

- ierai, Lat. ire. In the dialect of the Romanian of Istria “ i ” (inf.), to walk.

- ‘Ierne (Ierne), with Strabo and Claudianus, the large island situated westwards of Britannia, called by Caesar Hibernia. In Latin hibernus, adj. = Rom.de ierna” (TN – of winter), so that Hibernia appears only as a simple translation of the barbarian word Ierne, Rom. ierna (TN – winter).

- ‘Isbouros (Isburos), a river in Sicily. Another river in Sicily, Hipparis, appears in a codex of Ptolemy also with the name ‘Ispouros. The language of the Sicilians was barbarian, as the Greek authors tell us. Rom. isvor, Lat. fons (TN – source).

- italos, in the language of the barbarian populations from the Greek regions, having the meaning of vitulus, vitulus. The Tursenii, writes Apollodorus, called the bull italos (Bibl. II. 5. 10). Rom. vitel (TN – calf), diminutive from vita, pecus, cattle; Lat. vitulus and vitellus.

 

.L.

 

- labors, violent, powrful, monstruous (Homer). In Romanian found only in popular incantations: “serpe laur, balaur” (TN – serpent laur, dragon).

- lacchos, depth, lac (TN  - lake), Lat. lacus. Lacchouris (Lacuris), city iin Hispania; Lacura, locality in Pannonia. In a diploma of the bishopric of Rimini, y. 1015: “due lacure…que sunt in padule: in another paper from the 10th century: “Vincoraria cum lacora sua”. We have here a barbarian plural ending in uri, ura, ure, ora, like in Romanian lac, pl. lacuri.

- lachne (Homer), Lat. lana, Rom. lana (TN – wool).

- lancea, Rom. lance, barbarian word, used in the eastern and western parts of Europe. Lancea a Graece dicta, quam illi logchen vocant (Festus). Gellius (N. A.): “lanceam quoque dixit non Latinum sed Hispanicum verbum esse).

- lanqi, Lat. linqua, Rom. limba (TN – tongue), in the idiom of the inhabitants of Bogos in Ethiopia.

- Lar, pl. Lares, in the language of the Tursenii of Italy = lord. Lar Tolumnius rex Veientium. Lars Porsena Clusinus rex. With the Romans, Larii (Lares) were ancient protective divinities of the home and family. In Romanian folk poetry larii (sing. lariu) are hero shepherds. The Arvali Brothers sacrificed rams to the Larii and ewes to the Mother of the Larii.

- latris, he who provides service for payment. Lat. latro, Rom. lotru (TN – bandit)

- leberides, iepuri de casa (TN – rabbit), Lat. cuniculi, in the language of the Turditanii of Hispania.

- Lechton (Lectum), one of the peaks of Ida mountain near Troy, where the “Sleep” had come, called by Juno to lull Jove to sleep. Lat. lectum, Rom. pat (TN – bed).

- lechuthizo, to anoint, Rom. a lecui, Lat. curo. Etym. from lec, medicamentum.

- legaria, in the language of the Gallii = legume (TN – vegetables).

- leporis in the language of the Greeks of Sicily. Lat. lepus, Rom. iepure, Mrom. lepuri (TN – rabbits).

- lessum (only in accus. form), word used in the XII Tabulae. Romanian lesin (TN – fainting).

- Liber, with the meaning of puer, parvulus, a name attributed to Apollo. In Romanian folk carols: “Leer, Ler, Leru-i Domne mititel”, where Ler has the meaning of “infant”.

- limne, Dor. limna, deep and stagnant water. Romanian aliman, body of water deep from shore to shore.

- linon (Homer), Lat. linum, Rom. in (TN – flax).

- Losna = Luna, as divinity. Inscription on an Etruscan mirror. Rom. losnita (dim. from losna) = feminine ghost. The moon (Luna) under the name Hecate was considered by the ancients as the divinity of spells.

- lyche, light, daylight, Rom. lucire (TN – luster).

- lumemulia, not understood word in the Acts of the Arvali Brothers: Ibi omnes lumemulia cum rapinis acceperunt et deas unguentaverunt (Henzen, p, CCIV). It is a composite word, reproduced traditionally from other older acts. This obscure term is explained by the adjective omnes. By form and meaning, lumemulia corresponds to the Romanian word lume multa = many people, and the following words: “cum rapinis (acceperunt)” are only a simple error of the inscriber, instead of “coronas (acceperunt)”, as this form also appears in the acts of the following year, 219ad.

- loyo, to wash, to bathe (Homer), Lat. luo, lavo; Rom. lau (inf. a la), adj. part. laut.

- Loupophantana (Lupofantana), castle in the regions of Remesiana in upper Mesia. Rom. Fantana lupului (TN – the well of the wolf).

- Lupus, Lupulus, Lupa and Lupula, personal names in Dacia, Pannonia, Noricum and Dalmatia.

 

.M.

 

- Ma, mama, (TN – mother), the name of Rhea (Gaea) with the Lydians. Ma! (voc) used as invocation by Eschyl: Ma Ga! (Mater Terra!). Ma, honorific title of the Isis, who represented Rhea in the Egyptian pantheon.

- Magoyra, a city in Ethiopia (Ptol.), Rom. magura, Lat. collis, tumulus.

- Maia. In the ancient theology of the Romans, under the name Maia was venerated Terra Mater. With Suidas, Maia, a mamme = avia, old woman. In the suburbs of Bucharest maia, Mrom. maie = grandmother (avia).

- maios, pl. maioses, instead of maior, maiores, with the meaning of mos (TN – old man), Lat. avus. From “maios” had formed in the ancient popular language various dialectal nuances: mas, mox, with the meaning of old man (avus), and mos = disciplina maiorum, ancestral institutions regarding the religious cult and ceremonies (Macr. Sat. III. 8). See Maioumas.

- Maioumas (Maiumas), Suidas tells us, was an ancient festivity in Rome, when the heads of the city went to Ostia, where they enjoyed themselves in all sorts of capering, throwing each other in the sea. We have here a composite word: Maiou – mas, which corresponds to the Romanian form Mosi de Maiu. The same custom to get wet and throw each other into the river is still observed today in some parts of Transilvania, with the occasion of the feast day of St. George (23 April). Another form of the word mas was masson (Homer), with the meaning of mai mare (TN – bigger), Lat. maior (Odyss. VIII. 203; Eschyl, Pers. 440. 708). There existed therefore in the ancient language also, the word mas with the meaning of “mos”; see Majus.

- Majus, a co-name of Jupiter in the ancient theology of the Romans, with the meaning of mos, as results from the verses of Ovid, that the month of Maiu (May) was luna Mosilor (TN – the month of the Mosi): Hinc sua majores posuisse vocabula Maio (Fast. V. 72). In ancient barbarian language Maia = grandmother (Suidas). We also find the words “mos Dumnedeu” in the verses recited by the Romanian children when they celebrate “Caloianul”.

- Malaius, co-name in Noricum. Rom. malaiu, bread made from mei (TN – millet) flour, or maize (zea mayis). Malaiu, personal co-name in Transilvania. The word has also existed in Pannonia. In Hungarian language near Balaton, male = malaiu.

- Malum (Ad), a locality in lower Mesia, situated on the southern bank of the Danube westwards of Ratiaria. Rom. mal (TN – shore), Lat. ripa, littus. The word has been widespread in Dacia. One of the three provinces of Dacia was called Dacia Maluensis, whose capital was Colonia Maluese. In medieval toponimy of Transilvnia and Hungary, we often find the word mal, with the meaning of “mons”, “monticulus”, “promontorium”, “vinea”.

- mamma and mamme, Rom. mama, grandmother; Lat. pop. mamma, mother. Mammas atque tatas habet Afra (Mart. I. 101). Mama, feminine co-name in Roman inscriptions from Dacia.

- mammia, mater, mother for the Atticii (Suidas).

- manducare, for “edere”. Rom. a manca (TN – to eat), It. mangiare. In the language spoken by the inhabitants of Bogos in Ethiopia, manka = spoon; manqa = the pot in which meat is stewed.

- mania in Greek antiquity = Lat. furor; Lat. mania, Rom. mania (TN – anger).

- Manicelus and Mannicelus, mountain in Liguria, Rom. muncel, Lat. monticellus.

- marcha in the language of the Gallii = horse, equus. Rom. marha, horned cattle; marcus, ram with half white, half black wool (Teleorman). Marcu boilor, popular feast day (15 April) to celebrate cattle prosperity.

- marga, was called in Gallia and in Britannia a sort of rich clay earth. Rom. marga, Fr. marne.

- marisca, the final word in the name of the locality Transmarisca, situated on the southern bank of the Istru, today Turtucaia. In Dutch language marasch; old Fr. maresqs, marescat; Lat. med. marescagium; Fr. marecage. It derives from mare (TN – sea). In med. Latin mara, palus, Lat. palus, locus palustris, Rom. mlastina (TN – marsh).

- marturos (Homer). In the Eolic dialect martur, Lat. testis; marturie, testimonium. Word not used by the Roman authors. In ecclesiastic literature martyr and marturus = martir (TN – martyr). In Romanian martur, marture and marturia, with the original meaning (TN – witness, testimony).

- Matra mons. One of the three main mountains of Hungary. By name seems to have been consecrated to the divinity of the Great mother, Mater magna, Mater oreia. Matrona, mountain in the Alpes. Matrica, var. Matrinca and Matri, a locality in Pannonia.

- Medousa (Medusa), one of the three Gorgons, whose dwellings were, according to Hesiodus, near the northern bank of the river Oceanos potamos (Istru). Eyrumedousa (Eury-medusa), an old woman slave at the court of the king of the Pheacians (Homer). Medusa of the Greek poems corresponds to the Romanian word matusa, old woman, Lat. amita, matertera, anus.

- meli (Homer), Lat. mel, Rom. miere (TN – honey).

- malon, pl. mala, Lat. ovis, Rom. oie. In Romanian language the word miel, pl. miei, Lat. agnus, also had sometimes the meaning of young sheep.

- mesos, adj. (Homer), Lat. medius.

- methu, mustum, vinum (Homer). The word medos has been used in Dacia also after the withdrawal of the Roman legions. Lat. medus, Rom. mied.

- Micia (pagus), a village in Dacia. The word derives form the root mic (TN – small); with Homer michros, with Suidas micchos, Rom. mic. In Latin mica, a small piece.

- Micu, co-name in Pannonia.

- mintha (Minthe), a mountain in the Peloponessus. Rom. munte, Lat. mons (TN – mountain).

- minuntha, adv. a little, for a short time; minunthadios, for a short time (Homer). Rom. minteni, mintenas, mintenata, Lat. mox.

- moly (molu) was called in the “language of the gods” a medicinal plant with a black root and a milk white flower, very hard to dig up (Homer). With Suidas, molu, peganion agrion, ruta agrestis. With the Macedonians, molycines. By the name and color of the flower, molu or molv corresponds to the Rom. nalba, Lat. malva.

- morpha (Homer), Lat. forma, Rom. forma (TN – form).

- Morimarusa, in the language of the Cimbrii = mare morta (TN – dead sea). Today is called Maramures the region from the upper parts of Tisa, in the historical documents of Hungary Marmarisium, Maramors, Maramarus, Maromaros, Maramorusius, Maramorisium.

- mormyru (Homer) = Rom. a murmura, to murmur.

- Mostenoi with Ptolemy, Mosteni with Tacitus, city in Lydia. Mastienoi, people near the columns of Hercules (Hecateus). With Polybius, Mastianoi, mountainous people from Hispania. Rom. Mosceni and Mosneni (sing. moscean, mosnean), a class of free peasants (especially from the mountainous regions), who owned traditional lands according to the laws established by the ancestors (heredes avitarum possessionum).

- Mosulon achron (Mosulum promontorium) in Ethiopia. Barbarian word, Rom. mos, art. mosul, Lat. avus. From the Romanians the word had passed to the Rutenii of Bucovina, also in articulated form mosul, Grossvater.

- mosun, mossun, pl. ta mosuna, acc. Mosunas, high houses or towers of wood, in which dwelt the Mosynoi (Mossynoi), also called Mossynoichoi (Mossynoeci), a mountainous population from near the Asiatic Colchis, or according to other geographical sources, near the Colchii of Dacia, and neighbors with the Heptacometii, “those from Septe-sate” (TN – seven villages). The word is barbarian, and derives from mas (= mos), Lat. avus. The original meaning had been patrimonium, heredium, bona paterna et avita; Rom. mosia (TN – feudal estate). The form mosina instead of “mosia” has also exited in the Romanian language, as results from the words mosinas and mosinenca (Uricar. II, 75; v, 371).

- mox(is), the final part of the composite word Zalmoxis, the name of the supreme divinity of the Getae, and which corresponds to the Romanian word deul – mos, “Jupiter avus” of the Trojans, and Zeus Papaios of the Scythians. The first part Zal is the same word as the Macedo-Romanian dza in Dumnidza (Dumnedeu), gen. art. Dumnidzalui, voc. Dumnidzale.

- myle (Homer), Lat. mola, Rom. mora (TN – mill).

- myrmix (Suidas), Lat. formica, Rom. furnica (TN – ant).

- mystax, Rom. mustata (TN – moustache).

.N.

 

- naylon, nablum, ancient musical instrument, whose form is still not well known. The word still exists today in the Romanian language under the form naiu (TN – Panpipe), musical instrument identical with the pastoral flute attributed to Pan, composed from a number of reed pipes of unequal length, tied together.

- nennos and nannas, uncle; nenna, aunt. Rom. nene, the allocution of a youth towards an older man; nana, aunt or elder sister.

- Nep and Nap, abbreviations in ancient Roman calendars. In the Fastae Prenestinae, the days of 13th and 15th of January are marked with the letter NP, which is interpreted by the word “nefasti”. According to Festus: the days marked in calendars with the sign Nep were the days of joy, in which somebody had escaped some predicted calamity. The same was called Nap in Fastae Julianae. In Rom. nepasta (napasta), calamitas, affliction. In the Moravian language, napast, praesagium, terror.

- Nerae (Aquae), locality in Gallia Aquitanica, with the meaning of Ape negre (TN – black waters). For the Retoromani, neer = negru. In Romanian epic songs, the river Cerna is called Nera and apa negra.

- Nigris, a river which has its source in Ethiopia, from which the inhabitants of this country have been called Negri, black (Pliny, V. 8. 1). The word had belonged to the language of the Getulii, who lived in the neighborhood of this river. “Tota Gaetulia ad flumen Nigrin, qui Africa ab Aethiopia dirimit” (ibid, V. 4. 5).

- Nisibis (Nisibis, var. Nesibis and Nasibis), city in the eastern part of Mesopotamia. In Phoenician language the word meant “a mound of stones”. Nisibes, a populaton in Libya. Nisibis, a locality at the frontier between India and Bactria. Rom. nasip and nisip (TN – sand), Lat. arena. Romanian villages: Nisip, Nisipi, Nisipeni, Nisipuri, Nisiposa.

- noi, the dual nominative and accusative of ego, with the meaning of noi, amandoi (TN – we, both).

- nymphe, Lat. nympha (Homer). In the lands near Atlas mountain (of the Hyperboreans), according to Diodorus (III. 60), the married women, gunaichai, were called nymphai. The word is of barbarian origin, and corresponds to nupta, married woman. With Suidas, nymphe = nova nupta.

 

.O.

 

- ‘Ocheanos potamos and roos ‘Ocheanoio (Oceanus flumen, fluentum Oceani), the great and divine river from the north of the Thracian peninsula, where had been born the divinized kings of pre-historical antiquity. ‘Ocheanos potamos, another river in Lydia (Paus.). The Greek words ending in anos belong either to the Pelasgian language, or to the Latin. The origin of the word is reduced to an ancient popular form ocea, Gr. oche = acha = aqua. From here also derive the names Oaxes, river in Crete; Oxus, the great river of Asia after the Indus and the Ganges; Ochus, river in Bactriana, which flew into Oxus; Ocelum, river in Gallia Cisalpina. In the Cumanic language achus = flumen. On the territory of Romania Ocea and Ociu are ancient names of waters and lakes.

- ‘Ochasios, one of the chiefs of the Etolians from near Thessaly (Homer). Romanian oches (TN – with big eyes), Lat. oculeus, magnoculus. Oches, personal co-name.

- ocheteyei, word cited by Suidas, with the meaning of aquas derivate; ochetos, canalis, aquaeductus, rivus. The root is oche (aqua).

- ‘Ocholon (Ocolum), castle in the Eubea island. Rom. ocol (TN – enclosure, cattle pen), Lat. septum aulae, caula, bovile. Etymology from accolere, to dwell close by.

- OERBIT BOLCHOSITH (Oerbet Volchoseth), the name of Typhon with the Egyptians, in a Gnostic papyrus from Leyden. Typhon had been one of the shepherd kings who ruled over Egypt. Oerbet seems to have had the same meaning of shepherd–king. Rom. oieriu, sheep shepherd. Batos = king in the language of the Libyens.

- oiai, pelles ovillae, Rom. piei de oie (TN – sheep skins).

- oinos, Lat. vinum (Homer). Rom. vin (TN – wine).

- oiorpata. The Scythians, writes Herodotus (IV. 110), called the Amazons oiorpata. The word had the meaning of viricidae, women who kill their men, from oior = Rom. barbat in the Scythian language (TN – man), Lat. vir, and pata = to kill. In any way, pata did not mean to kill, but “a bate” (TN – to beat), Lat. batuo. Under the same form, the word has been preserved also in the Hungarian language from the upper parts of Tisa, where we find the almost Romanian expression csitepate = Rom. cin’te bate (TN – who beats you) with the meaning of quarrel.

- ois in ancient Greek  = sheep, Lat. ovis, Rom. oie.

- ‘Olbia (Olbia), city in Scythia near the mouths of the river Borysthenes, also called Olbiopolis. ‘Olbia, a port in Bithynia. Olbia, city in Gallia Narbonensis. Olbia, another city in Sardinia. Word widespread in all the lands inhabited by Pelasgians. Etym. from albus (TN – white).

- olma, the name of a plant with the Dacians, ebulum with the Romans, olma with Apuleius. The word has a Latin form. In the Venetian dialect ulmus campestris and ulmus montana are called olma.

- ‘Olumpos (Olumpos), the holy mountain of Pelasgian and Greek theology, situated according to Homer, Hesiodus, Eschyl, Eurypide and Pindar, at the north of the Thracian peninsula, near Oceanos potamos; later though, considered as a mountain between Thessaly and Macedonia. In Romanian, holump, as name of a mountain, tumulus, funerary mound; the same word found as holm, holmu and holym, Lat. mons, monticulus, in medieval documents of Hungary.

- Opas. The Egyptians, as Cicero writes, called Vulcan Opas, Hephaistos and Haphaistos with the Greeks. But both names are of Pelasgian origin, having the same meaning as the Romanian opaiatiu or hopaitiu, Lat. lucerna. See ‘Ephaistos.

- opsi, eye, face (Homer). Etym. ochiu, oculus.

- Orbus, personal name in Pannonia, Rom. orb (TN – blind), Lat. caecus.

- ‘Orpheus (Orpheus), Thracian or Getic poet and singer, predating Homer. His name derives from orphos, Rom. orb, Lat. orbus, luminibus orbus, similar with alphos, ‘Alpheys from “albus”. In older times the popular singers had usually been blind, like Thamyris, Demodocus and Homer.

- ‘Ostasos (Ostasus), a son of Uranos and Gaea (St. Byz. see Adana). In Romanian language, ostas, (TN – soldier), Lat. miles. The word derives from the same root as the Lat. hastatus. Lampridius (Al. Sev. 32) mentions “milites quos ostensionales vocant”, but here ostensionales is only a literary form based on a term taken from the military popular language. With the Romanians of Maramures, Osztas.

- ostis and ostes, he who hits; from here the verb ostizo, ferire, percutere. With Suidas, oistos, telum, sagitta. Rom. ostie, iron fork, fixed at the point of a wooden spear, with which fish is caught.

 

.P.

 

- palacrae and palacranae, native gold in some bigger pieces, with the Hispanii (Pliny, 33. 21. 11). Rom. paracluire, to break stones; paraclau, the hammer for breaking the stones.

- Palilia and Parilia, an ancient festivity of the Roman shepherds, celebrated around the beginning of spring (21 April), when great fires of hay were lighted, over which the young shepherds jumped. With the Romanian people, the same custom, with the same ceremonials, takes place on the eve of St. George, 22 April. In Romanian language, palalae, fire with large flames. In Cod. Voron. a pali, to light, to burn, Lat. accendere.

- pammateira, pammator. With the Greek poets (Homer, Eschyl), an epithet of the divinity Gaea (Terra), with the meaning of “Mama tuturor” (TN – Mother of all). Literary form from a barbarian popular term, which corresponds to the Romanian word pament = terra.

- Pan and Panos (Pan, Panus), an ancient god of the shepherds, about whom it was said that had been born in Arcadia (but understand Ardia, today Ardel); According to Homer, Pan had been the son of Hermes (Armis in Dacia), and according to Theocritus, the son of Uranos. In the beginning, the word Pan expressed only a political and military function. Osyris himself had the title Pan (Diod. I. 25). According to Stepyh. Byz., Arcadia had been also called Pania, from the name of Pan. In the history of the Dacians, this word appears under the form banus in the name of the king Sangibanus. In lower Italy, Bannas meant king, or supreme duke. In Slavic languages, panu means “dominus”. See Bannas and banus.

- Pandaros (Pandarus), one of the most distinguished archers of the Trojans, originally from the Ida mountain, to whom Apollo had given a bow (Homer). With the Romans, dea Panda, a divinity of the roads, called as such because she had the power to:”viam pandere et aperire” (Arnob. 4. 128). Rom. pandariu (TN – watchman), custos, vigilator.

- panicum, a species of millet in Gallia and in the regions of the Pontos, Rom. parinc.

- Pannonia, Roman province, situated between Dacia, Noricum and Illyria. Its name derives without doubt from the word Ban (Banus), Gr. Pan, a title of the ancient national rulers of this province. Similarly, a number of regions of Hungary or ancient Pannonia have been governed by Bani in the Middle Ages, which had the name Bani Slavoniae, Bani Croatiae et Dalmatiae and Bani Machovienses, and the territories administered by these Bani were called Banatus. The etymology of the name Pannonia from Pan (banus) also results from the name of the Pannonian city Bononia, today Ban-Monostor. Dio Cassius also derives the name of Pannonia from pannus, but he understands under this word a woolen fabric used by the inhabitants of Pannonia to make their vestments (l. 49. 36).The usual coins of Hungary, the denarii, were also called in the 13th and 14th centuries banales antique, banales regales, denarii banales, denarii banales antique, as in the Romanian language the coins (TN – and money today) are generally called bani.

- Papaios (Papaeus), called the Scythians their supreme divinity. Various mountain peaks from the southern range of the Carpathians have the name Popau. In some places near “Popau”, another mountain has the name “Papusa”. See papas.

- papas, Rom. tata, father, in the language of the inhabitants of Bithynia. With Varro, pappus is senex, old, with Ausonius, avus, old man. Macedorom. pap = old father, old man. The word has also existed in Pannonia. In the Hungarian language from the village Baranya, papo means “old father”.

- Parolissum and Porolissum, a Roman castrum, situated in the northern parts of Dacia, on the hills of Moigrad, where flows the river called today “Paraul ursoiei”. Parolissum is only a form altered by the Greek geographers. The word is composite. The first part, Parol or Porol has the meaning of parau (TN – stream); in its Thracian form, para, paron and poro are used in topical composite names: Bessapara, Drusipara, Drysiporo, Vesuparon. Bulg. poro and poroi = parau, torrent. 

- Parthi, a population migrated from Scythia, which in the beginning had settled in the southern parts of Hyrcania, close to the Caspian Sea. According to Greek and Roman authors, the word was of Scythian origin and meant “exiled” or “fugitive”. Rom. a deporta, deportare (TN – to deport), having also the meaning of “exile”; Ital. partire, to depart, from the Latin form se partiri, to part, to go away.

- pata, Scythian word according to Herodotus, with the meaning “to kill”. The original meaning had been though “a bate” (TN – to beat), Lat. batuo.

- pataichos with the Phoenicians, Lat. pygmaeus, Rom. pitic (TN – dwarf).

- paysis, ceasing, ending, Lat. pausa; Rom. repaus, Mrom. pafsi.

- pecunia. In the older times, the private wealth consisted usually of domestic animals, Lat. pecus. Rom. pecuina, the sheep which give milk. Macedorom. bacur, picuniu and piculiu, a lot of money gathered together.

- Pagasos (Pegasus), in ancient legends the name of the divine horse which bore Jove’s thunderbolts. Rom. cal pag, mottle colored horse. In the historical documents of Hungary, equus coloris peg.

- pegrina, the name of a plant in the language of the dacians, ampelos melaina with the Greeks (TN – black vine), with the Romans oblamenia; with Isidorus, plant identical with labrusca, Rom. “laurusca”, wild grapevine. The correct form in the language of the Dacianswseems to have been negrina.

- pelor, monster, especially with an evil meaning. The serpent Python, killed by Apollo near Delphi, is called by Homer pelor. In Romanian traditional poetry, balaur is an epithet of the serpents of prodigious size, Lat. draco.

- pelta, round shield, covered with goat skins. Etym. from pellis, Rom. piele (TN – skin), adj. pellitus, covered with skin.

- pelton, scutum Thracicum (Suidas), word of the same origin as pelta.

- perpherees. The Hyperboreans, Herodotus tells us (4, 33), had the custom to send gifts from their harvests to the temple of Apollo in Delos, taken there by two Hyperborean girls accompanied by five citizens, called perpherees (comites deductores). The word is Hyperborean or Dacian. In Lat. perferro, to take something to its destination.

- petra and petre, rock, boulder, big stone (Homer), Rom. petra.

- Petris, a locality in Dacia, situated between Sarmizegetusa and Apulum.

- Patrizen (Petrizen), a castle in Dardania, repaired by Justinian.

- Petrodaua, city in Dacia. Word composed from petra, stone, and daua, citadel.

- Petrosacha, locality in Arcadia. Petrosacha, another locality in Arabia. The meaning seems to be petra seca (TN – the dry stone), as we also have Muntele sec in Romanian topographical names.

- Petrossa (Petrossa), an island of Cilicia, facing the island of Cyprus. Petrosa, a number of villages in Romania.

- picherion, in the Phrygian language = Rom. unt (TN – butter), Lat. butyrus. The word derives from pecus, sheep, as the Macedorom. say pikurar instead of pecurar (TN – sheep shepherd).

- piperi, gr. peperi, barbarian word. Herodianus “gummi” quoque ut “piperi” barbare dicit esse (Priscian. Inst. VI. 11-14). Rom piperiu (TN – pepper). In the Hungarian language from the territory of Pannonia, biber, paprika, Rom. ardeiu.

- pistra, according to Suidas it derives from potistra (potum praebens) with the meaning of “canalis, ex quo pecudes aquam bibunt”, Rom. sghiab, valau or conduct, from which the cattle drink water. On the territory inhabited by Romanians, Bistra, Bistrita, Bistriciora, Bistretul, names of a number of rivers, streams and lakes. In the Moravian language, bistryna, fluentum, torrens. Macedorom. bistri = Rom. limpede (TN – clear).

- plachoenta (ac.), Rom placinta (TN – pie); plachoenta piona turophoron, fat pie with cheese (Suidas). The word has been used also in Pananonia. In the Hungarian dialect from the lake Balaton palacsinta, a sort of dry dish.

- podegos, viae dux (Suidas). Rom. poteca and potec, footpath through mountains and forests.

- popa, was called by the Romans the priest who looked after the fire, incense, water, wine, salt and pots, and who led the victim to the altar. Rom. popa, priest. Etymology from papas, father, parent, word used by the Barbarians. In the satires of Persius (VI. 74) we also find the ironical expression “popa venter” (TN – belly of priest)…which accommodates a lot of food and drink “.

- popanum (popanon), pie made for sacrifice. The word seems to be more related to “popa”, the priest who undertook the religious ceremonies of the sacrifice, than with “papa”, food in the language of children.

- por and porus, a word used by the Romans, added to proper names, having the meaning of puer, child. The word had also been used in Daica. Pieporus, rex Coistobocensis, and his nephew Natoporus. In Thrace, eques Mucaporus. In the Greek form of “poris”: Rhescuporis, meaning the son of Rhescu. From “por” derives the Romanian word porodita, Lat. progenies, proles, generation. In the Moravian language, poradka, progenies. Under the feminine form poria, used by Hesiodus in the name of the nymph Pontoporia, a granddaughter of the Pontos.

- porchos, Rom. porc (TN – pig), used in the ancient religious books of the Athenians.

- pothos, avidity, appetite, Rom. pofta.

- prasin and prasia with Homer, leguminum area. Rom. a prasi, Lat. procreare, producere.

- proballo, Lat. projicere, Rom. a pravali (TN – to overthrow), Lat. provolvere.

- prodiorna, var. prodiarna, the name of a plant with the Dacians; elleboros melas with the Greeks, veratrum nigrum with the Romans. In France the same plant, which blossoms in winter, is called “rose de Noel”, Ital. rosa di Natale, Germ. Weinachtsrose. The Dacian word, as communicated by Dioscorides is composite. The final part diorna or diarna corresponds to the Romanian form “de ierna” (TN – of winter).

- puanion, a sort of bread made of wheat and legumes. Etym. from panis, Rom. pane and paine.

- pyr, ignis, fire. According to Plato, the word is of barbarian origin, because the Phrygians called pyr the fire which burns. Rom. para focului, flacara, Lat. flamma; a pirui = a praji (TN – to fry), Lat. frigere. Mrom. pira, flame.

- puros, wheat with Homer. Rom. pir, gramen caninum, triticum repens, a grass weed.

- purrias, servant, slave, Lat. servus (Suidas). The word seems to have been borrowed from the Barbarians. Rom. biris, Hung. beres, = servant who looks after the oxen.

- purriche (purriche), genus saltationis (Suidas); dance with weapons, considered as the ancient dance of the Curetii, which consisted of fast movements of the body. According to Aristotle, Achilles might have been the first to execute this dance with the occasion of the funerary ceremonies in honor of Patrocles. In the times of Caesar, writes Suetonius (Caes. 39), the dance called pyrrhica (sing.) had been executed in Rome by the sons of the princes of Asia and Bithynia. This dance has also been in use in Dacia and Pannonia. In Cristurul from the Mures river in Transilvania still exists today a children’s game called pureca, which is executed with wooden staffs. In the counties Comarom and Vesprem from the territory of ancient Pannonia, a popular dance is called pilika and pilike. It is only a simple fable that Pyrrhus, the king of the Epirus, had introduced this dance.

- pyteon, in Eolian dialect = Rom. put, well.

- putine, Rom. putina, wooden cask for storing water, cheese, butter, cabbage, etc.

 

.Q.

 

qanbar, in the language of the inhabitants of Bogos in Ethiopia = cask for storing milk, Rom. ciubar.

 

.R.

 

- Ra, title of sovereignty of the first Pelasgian king, who had reigned over Egypt (Uranus, Tum). The same personality of prehistorical times figures in Romanian traditional songs under the name “Raiu imperat”. “Raiu” in the ancient language of the Pelasgians meant rege, king. In Romanian carols is mentioned “cununa raiului and domnului” (Teodorescu, 90 / TN – the crown of the king and lord), and in another version “cununa rugului” (Marian, Nunta, 440), where “rug” is a vanished dialectal word with the meaning of “rege”, Gr. ryga, rex, see regas. The feminine form had been with the Egyptians Rait; in Greek and Roman theology ‘Rea (Rhea) = regina, queen, as was called the wife of Saturn, and Rhea Sylvia, the daughter of king Numitor of Alba Longa, the mother of Romulus and Remus. In ancient French and in the Bressan dialect from Jura, ray, Prov. roi, rey = Rom. rege, king. In the idiom of the Gypsies of Transilvania and Romania, in which we find many elements of the ancient Egyptian language, rai and ray.

- rachis, dorsum, tergum, Rom. carca (tN – upper back).

- radamnos, arboris ramus. Rom. ram (TN = branch)

- raptos, Rom. rupt (TN – torn), carpit, peticit. Lat. sutus, consutus.

- ‘Rechas (Rhecas), a duke of the Laconii settled in the Cimmerian Bosporus. Recis on the ancient coins of Rome. Regis on the denarii of M. Lepidus. It is the same word as regas, rex.

- regas, rex. In the history of Apollonius of Tyr we also find the forms raga, ryga and riga.

- retine, Rom. resina, Lat. aresina (TN – resin).

- rigos, Lat. frigus, Rom. frig (TN – cold).

- ‘Ripaia ore (Rhipaei montes), the high mountain chain from the northern parts of Thrace (Carpathians), ‘Ripai with the most ancient writers. With St. Byz. ‘Ripaia, oros ‘Yperboreion. With Orpheus, ‘Ripaion oros, the mountains from near Oceanos potamos. The Getae dwelt near Rhipaei mountains. With Avienus, Riphaei near the Istru. In Latin rupes (Isid. rupa), rock, ravine, shore. Rom. ripa and hripa, collapsed side of hills and mountains, rock, ravine, gully, shore.

- ripa, to fly, Lat. volatus, Rom. aripa (TN – wing), Lat. ala.

- rix, king, Rom. rege, in the language of ancient Pelasgian populations from Pannonia, Noricum, Germania and Gallia. On the ancient coins of Pannonia Ainorix and Evoiurix; Deudorix and Baetorix, dukes of the Sigambrii of Germny.

- ‘Rode, Rhoda, city in Tarraconia in Hispania. Rhode, vanished city near the Rhodan river in Gallia. ‘Rodai, Rudiae, ancient city in Calabria. On the territory of the countries inhabited by Romanians, various localities from where metals had been extracted, or are extracted, have the name Ruda. In Lat. rodus (rudus) and raudus, piece of metal, especially from copper. In Romanian were called Rudarai (sing. rudariu) the slaves of the king, whose occupation was the washing of gold from the sand of rivers. In Serbian, rudar, mine worker. A smaller island near Rhodus (TN – today Rhodes) was called in antiquity Chalce, “with copper mines” (Pliny, 5. 36), from where derives the name “Rhodus”.

- ‘Rodope (Rhodope), the biggest mountain of Thrace after Hem. Rom. vertop, pl. vertope, with various meanings: hill, crevices in rocks, steep craggy places, large natural depression, lake, marsh, Lat. collis, rupes, praecipitiium, specu, spelunca, vertex, gurges, locus paluster.

- Roidomna. Locality in southern Gallia, between Aquis calidis and Foro Segustanorum. Composite word with the meaning of Riul Domnei (TN – the river of the Lady). Identical names in Hungary, Rivulus Dominarum, in Romania Riul Domnei. In ancient French, ru and rui = riu, river.

- roos, watercourse. With Homer roos ‘Ocheanoio, fluentum Oceani.

- Rhoas, river in Phrygia. ‘Ra (Rha), the great river of Asian Sarmatia, today Volga. Rom. riu, Fr. ru and rui, Prov. riu, Romagnol re, Lat. rivus.

- Roskait, an epithet of the goddess Isis with the ancient Egyptians, also called the goddess of fire and the great flame. Rom. roscat (TN – ruddy), Lat. rufatus.

- Rosta and Rostau, in Egyptian mortuary papyri = iron walling, iron enclosure. In Italian language rosta. In Rom. rosteiu, iron grilles placed at doors and gates.

- ‘Rypai (Rhypae = Rhupae), city in Achaia. ‘Ripe (Rhipe), city in Arcadia (Homer). The same word as Lat. rupes, Rom. ripa, collapsed sides of hills or mountains. Ripe, a number of villages in Romania and Transilvania.

- rypos, filth on the skin of the body, sordes corporis, rom. rap.

 

.S.

 

- sacchos, Lat. saccus, Rom. sac (TN – sack, bag).

- sacurem (accus.), Rom. secure (TN – axe), in an inscription in southern Gallia.

- sagaris, war axe, word used by Massagetae and Scythians.

- sagum, a military woolen vestment, used by the barbarian populations, especially by the Dacians and Scythians. Rom. zeche or zeghe.

- samolus, the name of a plant with the Gauls, Rom. samulastra and samurastra, the name of a plant which, from the suffix astra, seems to have been a wilder species of the plant “samolus”.

- samos, pl. samoi, height, Lat. celsitudo, summit. The Romans used the word summus and summum for the highest mountain ridges and peaks: summus mons, summum jugum, Summum Penninum, Summum Pyrenaeum. In the popular language of Dalmatia (13th century) were called Sumet the mountains near Ragusa.

- sampsiarai (pl.), spathae barbaricae (Suidas). Rom. samcea, pl. samcele, small knife with wooden sides, Lat. cultellus. The word seems to have derived from an old form, samcella, pl. samcellae.

- Santi and Shenti-t, in the ancient religious language of the Egyptians, an epithet of the goddess Isis, also called Ma. The ending in t or it indicates the feminine form. With the Romans, Mater magna had also the epithet sancta and sanctissima.

- Saracha (Saraca), a locality in Arabia. Another Saracha in Media. Rom. sarac (TN – poor), Lat. pauper, egens, infelix.

- Sarpedon (Sarpedon), an island in Oceanos, where dwelt the Gorgons, whose attribute were the serpents (Carm. Cypr.). The meaning of the word seems to have been “insula serpilor” (TN – the serpents’ island).

- saynion, pl. saunia, a sort of lance. The word corresponds to the Rom. sabia, ensis, gladius, cf. Schuchardt, Vocal. III. 94: Samnium = Sabnium, somnus = sobnus, scamnum = scabnum.

- schapane (from schaptein), instrument for digging. In mediaeval Latin zappare. Rom. a sapa (TN – to dig)

- scardia, the name of plant with the Dacians. “Itali malum terrae. Daci absynthium rusticum, alii scardian”. We also find a similar form in the Italian botanical terminology: scardicione di campi, scardicione silvatica. 

- Scheptechasas (Scepte – casas), a castle in the Thraco-Illyrian regions, repaired by Justinian. Rom. Septe case (TN – seven houses).

- schiare, the name of plant with the Dacians, labrum veneris and carduus Veneris with the Romans. Rom. scaiu (TN – thistle).

- schoria, Lat. scoria, the useless parts of the metals, which are eliminated by fire. Rom. sgura (TN – scoria). In Transilvania and Banat various localities in the metalliferous regions have the name Scorobania, Scorobai. An ancient city in Pannonia was called Scarabantia (Pliny).

- schylax, Rom. cane, Lat. canis. In Romanian language the word a schilai (TN – today a schelalai, to yelp) is used only for dogs, Lat. clamare, vagire.

- Schythai (Scythae) were called by the Greeks all the populations from the north of the Black Sea and ancient Thrace. The national name of the Scythians had been nevertheless Aramaei (Pliny), meaning Aramani. The origin of the word is reduced to scutum (Gr. scytos, the animal skin with which the shields were covered). The original meaning of the name Scythes had been Rom. scutas, man armed with a scut, shield, Lat. scutatus, pl. scutati. The Persians, Herodotus tells us, called the Scythians Sachoi, and sachos in Greek meant scut (TN – shield).

- Sehkti, Sekhti, Sekti, Sekt, Saktit, in Egyptian papyri was the name of the sacred boat with which the sun traveled during the day on the divine Ocean, until it disappeared in the evening in the other world, through the straits of the mountains. Rom. seica and saica, rowing boat on the Danube. The word was used also in Pannonia. Italian saica, bastimento Greco o turco di basso bordo.

- seir, sol (Suidas). Rom. sore (TN – sun).

- Sellasia (Sellasia), city in Laconia. Sallasi, Salassi, Ligurian population in the Alpes. Rom. salas, pl. salase, habitacula pastorum, dwelling for the shepherds. The word has passed from the Romanian to the Rutheni and Poloni. In mediaeval Latin selaci, little village.

- sama, Rom. semn (TN – sign), Lat. signum (Homer).

- Ser (the Gate). In Egyptian mortuary papyri are often mentioned the high mountains from the divine region of the ancient empire, situated near the great river Nun, called by the Greeks Oceanos potamos, “the father of the gods”. At the western straits of these mountains was, according to Egyptian sacred geography, the Gate called Ser, identical with sidareiei pylai, Portile de fer, with Homer (TN – the Iron Gates).

- setanios artos, bread made with flour sifted through the sieve, from the verb satho, to sift (Suidas). Rom. sita, Lat. cribrum. The word has been in use also in the regions of Pannonia. “Ita pita, hogy a szita”, “asa-i pita cum e sita”, verses recited by the Hungarian children (TN – the bread is how the sieve is).

- Sethlan, the name of Vulcan with the Etruscans. Saytan, the devil, in the language of the inhabitants of Bogos in Ethiopia. Saytan, satanas, in the Cumanic language. In Romanian spells, Soitan, mythological being which spews flames from its mouth. In Romagnol dialect saeta, lightning in the form of a flying flame.

- sphedanos, violent (Homer). In med. Lat. faida, gravis et aperta inimicitia, Rom. sfada, quarrel, Lat. altercatio.

- Sphigx (Sphinx), a word which under this form has been transmitted only by the Greek authors. The sphinxes were simulacra of the mystical religious principles of the most ancient times. With the Egyptians, the sphinxes, considered as protecting spirits of the temples and graves, were represented with the head of a man, ram, or falcon, and the body of a lion. The origin of these simulacra was not Egyptian. Apollodorus mentions the Sphinx from Thebes in Beotia, meaning at the north of Thrace, born of Typhon and Echidna (III, 5. 8). In the city Borysthenes in Scythia there was also a temple surrounded with marble sphinxes (Herod. IV. 79). The name “Sphinx” cannot be explained, either in Egyptian or in Greek languages. The word was of barbarian origin. In the day of 9 March, the Romanian people celebrate with great religiosity the memory of the ancestors, Mosi, also called Sfinti, Samti and Santi. In their honor are distributed as alms a sort of buns of a longish form, with a man’s head, called Sfinti and Sfintisori (Marian, Serb. II. 145, 161), which indicates the origin of the name, and the religious function which the simulacrum called “Sphinx”, made in a longish shape, and with a man’s head, placed on Egyptian graves, had originally.

- Sharsharokket, Shapuarka. According to Egyptian legends, Horus, the son of Osyris, being wounded in the war with Typhon, had lost an eye, which had been later found. In the Egyptian mortuary papyri, are often mentioned the eyes of Horus and Osyris, likened with two vipers. One eye is called Sharsharokket, and this word seems to refer to the “ochiul sarit” (TN – eye which jumped off its socket) or lost of Horus. In Romanian popular language there is the cursing expression: “se-i sara ochii din cap” (TN – let his eyes jump off his head). The second eye-viper was called Shapuarka, a word which corresponds to the Romanian form “serpoica” (TN – she-serpent).

- Smy (Smu), a name of Typhon with the Phoenicians and Egyptians. Rom. smeu, balaur, dragon.

- Sparte (Sparta) is called with Homer the capital of Lacedemonia. In Romanian epic poems it is said about the conquered and destroyed citadels that they had been sparte (TN – broken). The capital of Lacedemonia, seems from its name to have been destroyed in more ancient times, either by war, or by earthquakes, and later rebuilt.

- spatha, was with the Greeks the wide piece of wood used at the weaving loom to beat the weaving. As military term sabia lata (TN – broadsword), Lat. gladius. Rom. spata, part of the supports of the loom. With the Romans spatha was the weapon of the auxiliary troupes.

- splan, Rom. splina (TN – spleen), Lat. splen, lien.

- spodos, worm ashes. Rom. spuda (spuza).

- spoy, in the Scythian language ochiu (TN – eye), from the same root as Lat. aspecto (in its ancient form specio), to look.

- Stauanoi (Stavani), a Scythian population in European Sarmatia, which dwelt close to the Cistoboci (Ptol.). Rom. stava, armentum equorum, equitium; stavariu, pastor equitii (TN – he who looks after the horses).

- Stenae, two localities in Macedonia. Stenes, a castle in the regions of Remesiana in upper Mesia. Caput Stenarum, or Stenarum, another locality in the Carpathians of Dacia, near Olt, where even today there are a big number of hills called stani, sing. stana (TN – sheepfold), tugurium opilionis, septum ovile.

- Stoborron achron (Stoborrum promontorium) in Libya. Rom. stobor, the edges of a vestibule or porch made of wooden planks, balustrade; Lat. latus exterius, obex, obstaculum.

- strabos, turned to one side, Lat. strabus, Rom. stramb, curvus, obliquus, flexus.

- Stramba, a city of Thrace. In the countries inhabited by Romanians, a number of villages with the name Stramba and Stramb.

- straggale, noose, Rom. streng; Lat. restis, funis.

- strava, the alms given by the barbarians of Dacia at the graves of the deceased. The word was also in use in the Italic language. With Lactantius, strava or straba. With the Umbrii, strebula, partes carnium sacrificatarum (Fest.).

- Strogges (Stronges), a castle on the territory of Remesiana in upper Mesia, Rom. strunga, place enclosed by a fence, having one opening through which the sheep are led to be milked; mountain strait; Lat. septum ovile, montium fauces, angustiae.

- Sutech, a title of Typhon with the Phoenicians and Egyptians. Sutech were also called in the times of Ramses II the governors of a number of foreign cities. According to Philo of Byblus, the word Syduchos, Sudech, Sudych, meant dichaios, justus (Fragm. H. Gr. III. 568). “Sutech” in antiquity was a title, a function, and the word corresponds to the Rom. judec and judet = judex, the head man of the place. The Roman consuls also were sometimes called judices. On a Latin inscription from Dobrogea zudeci.

 

T.Th.

 

- Tabae, a city in Lydia. According to Apollonius of Aphrodisia, taba meant in the language of the Lydians petra, rock. The word was spread through all the lands inhabited by the Pelasgians. A locality in the south-western parts of Dacia was called Tapai. With Jornandes, Tabae, a mountain pass in Dacia. In Britannia, Taba, in the Chersonessus, Tabana, names of localities. The word seems to have had in antiquity the same meaning as daba of the Dacians. In the Romanian language of the 19th century tabie = bastion, fortified citadel, Sp. topia, Sard. topiu, earth wall.

- taliatura, Rom. taiatura (TN – cut). Taliatis, a station in the mountains of the Iron Gates. Megleno-rom. taliat = circumcised.

- Tartaros (Tartarus), a deep place, precipice, or dark cave, in which Jove had shut the Titans and Saturn. According to the geographical notes of the ancients, the place called “Tartarus” was in the extreme parts, near Oceanos potamos, close to sidereiai pylai (Iron Gates), in the same region where today is the mountain called Tatul. Tartaros is a barbarian word, rotacised, formed from tatan (TN – father), in Cod. Voronetian tatanru and tataru. Val. Flac. calls Saturn Tartarus pater, where “pater” is only a simple explanation, or a repetition of the word “Tartarus”, which had become obsolete.

- Tat and Tatu, in the Osyric religion was a mountain or place, the Olympos or Egyptian paradise, situated in the northern parts of the ancient world. In the times of the Pelasgian domination, had been introduced in Egypt, as well as in Greece, the religious mysteries and doctrines of the Hyperboreans, about the places of eternal bliss, which were in the northern parts of the river Oceanos, called Nun by the Egyptians. Tat or Tatu is the residence of Osyris after he died, a place identical with Tartaros, where Saturn lived after his dethronement. See Tartaros.

- tata = pater in the familiar or rustic Roman language. Rom. tata (TN – father).

- Tata, Tattus, Tatucus, Tatuca, Tatoia, personal names and co-names in Noricum and Dalmatia.

- Tatur mons and Tatur montes, in mediaeval documents, today Tatra, the highest peak of the Carpathians in the northern parts of Hungary. A simple rotacised form of tatul.

- tayros (tayros boys.), Homer. Lat. taurus, Rom. taur (TN – bull).

- Tayros (Taurus), the mountain chain which separated Lycia from Pampyhilia. The word is barbarian Pelasgian. In Macedo-Romanian taur means “high mountain”. Taurus was also called in antiquity a hill in the eastern parts of Sicily. Tauri, certain promontories near the Arabic gulf. Taurici montes in the Tauric Chersonessus. Taurisci, a people mixed with the Thracians, with the Bastarnii and the Scythians; other Taurisci in Noricum. Teurisci, a tribe from the northern parts of Dacia. Taurini, people who dwelt under the Alpes. The meaning of the word is Munteni, from the mountain.

- ta, Lat. accipe, Rom. tine, na! (TN – take!). “Cychlops, ta, pie onion”, “Cyclops, take, drink the wine” (Homer). Rom. te, with the same meaning.

- Thabe, Thabai (Thebe, Thebae), the name of a number of ancient cities in the lands inhabited by Pelasgians, among which the most famous have been: Thebe in Beotia, Thebe under the mountain Placos near Troy, and Thebae in Egypt, the most ancient and great city on earth (Homer). In ancient Latin and in the language of the Beotians, Teba meant “del” (TN – hill).

- Temarinda, more correctly Temarunda, the Scythian name of the Meotic Lake (Pliny (6. 7). The word is not composed from Mater-unda, as Mullenhoff believed. The true name has been Marinda, or Marunda, from “mar” (mare, sea), like in the Latin language Larunda, the Mother of the Larii, from “Lar”, and te or ta, which is only a simple feminine article used by some Scythian tribes like in Ta-biti (Vesta). In the Lithuanian language of today tas, fem. ta, is almost an article and corresponds to the Germ. der, die.

- testes and teshtesh, in Egyptian papyri a fine fabric. Lat. textum, Rom. stofa tesuta, woven fabric.

- tetta, expression of honor with which the young addressed the elder (Homer). Rom. tete.

- tharsos, audacia, temeritas (Homer). Rom. darz (TN – audacious), Lat. audax, pertinax.

- theaina, goddess (Homer). Rom. dina (TN – read zina), Lat. diva, dea.

- thache, Rom. teaca (TN – sheath, scabbard), Lat. theca.

- themelion, themalion, (Homer), Rom. temeiu, temelie (TN – foundation), Lat. fundamentum.

- theos, Lat. deus, barbarian word. According to Herodotus, the Pelasgians called the gods theoys. In the language of the Getae: dio(s), zio(s), zeu(s) and zal, in the names of the gods: Saba-zios, Saba-dios, Medu-zeus and Zal-mox-is. Doric deos, Laconian sios, on an inscription of Mauritania Dieus. In mediaeval Romanian language, zeu.

- thyrsos, Lat. thyrsus; Rom. ters, tree branch, or of plants, with leaves.

- Tiberis, Tibris, the name of the river which separated the Etruscans from the Umbrii, the Sabinii and the Latinii. Tiberis, writes Pliny, had been previously called Tybris (= Tubris), and in antiquity Albula. In reality the water of this river is muddy, and its name derives from a popular word of the same form and meaning as the Rom. tulbure, Lat. turbidus. A river of Mauritania was called Turbulenta. Turburea, river in Prahova, Romania. According to Varro, the etymology of the name Tiberis was not Latin (V. 29).

- Tierna, Zernensium colonia with Ulpianus, Dierna with Ptolemy; in Latin inscriptions Statio Tsiernensis, a locality in Dacia, near the Iron Gates. With Steph. Byz. Therne, a city of Thrace, where Th takes the place of Z, like in Thumbraios = Zumbraios. The ancient city Tierna has been situated on the place where the river called Cerna (black water) flows today into the Danube.

- Titanes (sing. Titan), with Homer and Hesiodus Titanes, the generation of Uranos, the most ancient and noble class of the Pelasgian society. Barbarian word. Titan is reduced to tatta, parent. In Romanian language tatan = pater. Under the Pelasgian domination, the word had passed also in the religious language of the Egyptians. Tatunen, with the meaning of “Tatal” (TN -  father) was their primordial divinity, “father of fathers, father of the gods and all beings”.

- tithtoi, titthoi, mammarum papillae (Suidas), Rom. tita, pl. tite (TN – breasts).

- tonus, tonitrus. Rom. a tuna (TN – to thunder), Lat. tonare; tunet (TN – thunder), Lat. tonitrus.

- torna, torna phratre, words spoken by a Romanian soldier from across the Danube in his parents’ language, or the language of the land, Rom. a inturna, a intorce (TN -  to turn), Mrom. torna, Lat. vertere, redire.

- tornos, an instrument of the carpenters, for drawing a circle or a semicircle, Lat. tornus, Rom. a inturna, a intorce; Lat. intorquere.

- Tonzou (Tonzu), a river of Thrace which had its source in the Hem mountain, and flew into the Hebrus (Marita), near Adrianopole (Ptol.), today Tungea. The name derives from a hill, or a mountain peak, “Tonzus”, Rom. tuns (TN – shorn), with the forest cut off its top. In Romanian toponimy: Tunzaria, Tunzesci. In Galitia three mountains have the Romanian name Tusul, meaning Tunsul.

- Tredetitilious (Tredetitilius), a castle in the regions of Timoc, repaired by Justinian. The name is popular. “Tredeti” corresponds to the Rom. treideci (TN – thirty), triginta, Serb. trideset, but not to “treispredece” (TN – thirteen), Lat. tredecim.

- Troas, a Troas ga (Troas), the land inhabited by the Trojans, in particular the extensive plain between the rivers Scamander and Simois, called by Homer pedion to Troichon (Iliad. 10. 11). In Romanian, troas means meadow, Lat. vallis, convallis, pascuum, or any fenced level place, like an orchard. The word Troas had therefore in ancient language the meaning of meadow, level place like an orchard, as the plain of Troy (Troas) was also called pedion to Troichon by Homer.

- trupsa, luxus (Suidas). Rom. trufia (TN – pride), Lat. superbia, arrogantia. In mediaeval Latin truffa, jocus; truffare, jocum facere.

- tryge, the fruit gathered in the autumn, cereals, fruit, grapes. With Homer, troge, grape picking in the vineyards.

- tryx, the new, unfermented wine, must. Rom. strugure (TN – grape).

- tubracus, pl. tubraci, a word used in the popular (barbarian) language of Hispania; according to Isidorus, composed from “tibia” and “braccae”, the large trousers of the barbarians. Rom. turec, scapus cothurni.

- Tuisto, the supreme divinity of the ancient Germans; word which corresponds to “D-deu Tatal = Deus pater”. In Romanian language, “tutiu” has the same meaning as “tata”, probably an abbreviation from “tatutiu”.

- toulbela, the name of plant with the Dacians, chentayrion with the Greeks, febrifugium with the Romans. In Hungarian language, turbulya; Rom. turbare, laur, ciumafaie.

- toyra, the name of a plant with the Dacians, which the Romans also called tura, and the Greeks anagallis. Rom. turita, gallium aparine.

- Toyrichla (Turicla), a castle in the Thraco-Illyrian regions; popular form from turricula, Rom. turnisor (TN – little tower).

- turos, caseus (Homer), Rom. cas (TN – cheese). The same word as the Romanian urda, caseus secundarius, in which the letter t = d has been dislocated. See boyturon about the barbarian origin of the word.

- Touroys (Turus), castle in the Thraco-Illyrian regions, Lat. turris, Rom. turn (TN – tower). The same form has been also used in the regions of the barbarians from near Pannonia: Castrum Turul, today Turocz.

 

.U. Oy.

 

- Oylmiton, castle in the regions of little Scythia from the Danube. Rom. ulmet, a lot of ulmi (TN – elms), Lat. ulmetum.

- Oyranos (Uranus), the most ancient king of the Pelasgian nation; in ancient religion, the sky, Ceriul (Coelus) personified, and according to Romanian carols “descended from the sky”. The original meaning of the word had been Muntean (TN – from the mountain), Montanus, as results from the name Montu or Mont which he had with the Egyptians. The etymoloty is reduced to the ancient barbarian word ur, mountain, Greek oros, Ionian oyros. From the same root also derives the Romanian word urias, giant, “dweller of the mountains”. On a Roman inscription from Gallia VRIAXE, feminine proper name. From ur (mountain) also derives the name of the wild ox urus, Rom. bo-ur.

- Urma giganti, or just Urma, a locality in Mesopotamia (Itin. Ant. 84). Rom. urma (TN – trace, vestige), Ital. orma, Lat. vestigium. Urma boului, mountain in Romania.

- Oyrson, the name of an ante-Roman city in Histpania Betica; on ancient coins Ursone. In inscriptions: Respublica Ursonensium. In Romaian ursonia (TN – she bear), Lat. ursa.

- Ursus, Ursulus, Ursa, personal names in Noricum, Pannonia and Dalmatia.

- urus (pl. uri), wild ox in the Hercinian woods. Rom. bo-ur. Servius (Virg. Georg. II. 374): “dicti uri apo-ton oron”, meaning a montibus.

- oys, ear, a audi (TN – to hear), Lat. auris, auditus.

- oythar aroyres, the most fertile part of a sown field. Rom. hotar, field for plowing, the territory of a village, or its demarcation line, Lat. ager, territorium limes. The word derives from Rom. hat, the earth from which the plough draws the furrow. From the same root is the Germ. Hattert.

 

.V. Oy.

 

- Oyalle (Valle), locality in Macedonia. Mauroballe, a castle in the Thraco-Illyrian regions. Valle Cariniana in Pannonia. Rom. vale (TN – valley), Lat. vallis.

- Vesonna and Vesunna, locality in Gallia Aquitanica. Rom. vesunia (TN – today vizuina, lair), latibulum, fovea. Vesuinus comes from the mountain Vesuvius.

- Vior, river in Mauritania, Rom. apa viora, with the meaning of “apa via” (TN – live water), clear.

 

.Z.

 

- Zalmoxis (Zalmoxis), supreme divinity of the Getae. Word composed of za, art. zal (deu, god) and mox (mos, old man). Macedorom. Dumni-dza, gen. art. Dumnidzalui.

- Zaratha (Zaratha), locality in Mauritania. See Sarata.

- Zarmanos chagan (Zarmanus Chegan), the name of an Indian from Bargosa, sent in legation to the emperor Augustus and deceased on his way to Athens. In the Greek inscription placed on his grave he is called Zarmanos chagan (Strabo). Here the last word appears to have been used in a satirical way. It is a simple ethnic epithet, identical in form and meaning with the Rom. tigan (see Ch. XXXIII.17).

- zema, boiled things, Germ. das Gesottene. Zomos, Rom. zama, liquid food. The word “zema” also existed in the popular language of Hispania (Isid. Orig. XX. I. 21).

- zana, thename of a plant with the Dacians, cicuta with the romans. Rom. zerna (solanum nigrum).

- Zeys (Zeus), supreme divinity in the religion of the Pelasgians and the Greeks. In Eolian and Beotian dialect Deys and Sdeys. Etymology from deus, Rom. deu, Greek theos (TN – god).

- Ziozimala. In the county of Alba (ancient Pannonia), the Hungarian children recite the following traditional verses:” Ziczimala zeccz, ziczimala barbariczka, ziczimala zeccz”. These are vestiges from the Roman language once spoken on the territory of Pannonia. “ziczimala barbariczka” is deciuela (TN – tithe) paid by the barbarians from the territory of Germany for the land leased from the Romans (agri decimates).

- zoa, life, way of life, especially about animals and vegetables. Rom. soiu, Lat. stirps, genus, species.

- zombros, with the Thracians, the wild ox, Lat. urus, Rom. bour or zimbru.

- zugon and zugos (Homer), Lat. jugum, Rom. jug (TN – yoke).

- Zoyrmenton, var. Zoyrmanton (Zurmentum, Zurmantum), locality in Libya. Rom. jurament (TN – oath), Lat. jusjurandum, juramentum.

 

As we see, the antiquity of these forms of barbarian Latin language is very great.

Some are names of peoples, of lands, of mountains, rivers and cities from extremely remote times, while others are usual words, passed even before the Homeric times, from the live speech of the Barbarians, into the Greek language, and over Hellada, into the Egyptian language.

What presents though a particular importance for the history of the Romanic languages, is the type of this barbarian Latin language, which is one and the same, starting from the most remote mountains of central Asia, right to the western Ocean.

Biblical traditions said, as we saw above, that in the primitive times a single language had existed on the entire surface of the earth. The same thing has also been observed by modern philological studies, that in all the provinces of the Roman Empire had existed only one and the same rustic Latin language.

King Psametichus of Egypt, Herodotus tells us (II. 2), had made various attempts in order to find which had been the most ancient people on earth, and what language it spoke; and that finally, he had reached the conclusion that the most ancient language had been that of the Phrygians, meaning of the Pelasgians from Asia Minor, and that consequently those were the antiquissim people in the entire world.

The various words and forms preserved from the ancient barbarian language, as are: Anxurus, anger (TN – angel); Apsorrhus, apsora (TN – little water); Arius, riu (TN – river); Asarath, sarat (TN – salty); Baba and ababa, baba (TN – old woman); Baku, taur (TN – bull); brathu, brad (TN – fir tree); celeres, calarasi (TN – riders); cerus, ceriu (TN – sky); copte, copta (TN – baked); domnus and domna (TN – the lord and the lady); daspletis, despletit (TN – unbraided); Delos, del (TN – hill); dia, di (TN – day); Medusa, matusa (TN – aunt); MInthe, munte (TN – mountain); Mossulos, mos, art. mosul (TN – old man); mossun, pl. mossuna, mosina, mosie (TN – feudal estate); mox(is), mos (TN – old man); nep(astus) and nap(astus dies), napasta (TN – calamity); noi, noi (TN – we); ocolon, ocol (TN – fenced yard); Oer, oieriu (TN – shepherd); oiae, piei de oie (TN – sheep skins); Opas and Hephaistos, opaiatiu and hopaitiu (TN – peasant lamp); Ostasos, ostas (TN – soldier); Rosta, rosteiu (TN – iron grille); Ser, fer (TN – iron); sehkti, seica (TN – rowing boat); Sphinx, sfinti (TN – saints); sir, sore (TN – sun); Smu, smeu (TN – dragon); Sparte, sparta (TN – broken); Sudek and Sutech, judec, judet (TN – judge); Zaratha, sarata (TN – salty); Zeranii, terani (TN – peasants), etc., shows us that the ancient Roman language (Arimic, rustic), not the Latin language, had passed over its transformation period even thousands and hundreds of years before the Christian era.

From: http://www.pelasgians.bigpondhosting.com/website7/41_10_I.htm

The two Pelasgian dialects, Latin and Arimic

3 Comments

Even from very remote prehistoric times, the barbarian language of the Pelasgians was divided in two main dialects, one Latin, or “prisc” (TN – ancient) Latin, and the other Arimic, meaning “priscRoman, as the Pelasgian people was also divided in two large and extended families, one of the “Latinii betrani” (TN – ancient Latinii), the other of the Arimii.

These two Pelasgian peoples, issued from the same national trunk, had lived in prehistoric times in entirely different geographical and social conditions.

Both these peoples were distinguished one from the other by their physical temperament and their moral character. Even the forms of their language varied in many respects.

 

In ancient geographical sources, the ancient Latinii, or barbarian, figure under the name Abarimon(es), Abii, Leucoarimani, and white Barbarians, and they appear generally as a population from the northern parts of the ancient world.

In their migrations from Asia towards Europe, a first part of these barbarian Latinii, after spending more time in the northern regions of the Ural mountains, advanced westwards along the shores of the Baltic Sea. To this current belonged the Litvanii, Samogitii (the ancient inhabitants of eastern Prussia), then the great masses of Leti, scattered through various regions of Germania and Gallia (Du Cange, see Laeti sive Leti; Bocking, Notitia Dign. II. p. 1050, 1059, 1060), Litavii from Armorica, and Albionii from the Britannic islands (Pliny, IV. 30. 1; Diefenbach, Orig. europ. p. 147). Suetonius (Claudius, c. 1) and Dlugossus (Hist. Pol. Ed. 1711. I. I. 10. 113 seqq, 118; Cromer, De orig. et reb. gest. Polon. I. III. p. 42) also wrote about the barbarian Latin language spoken in the northern parts of Europe.

 

A second group from the family of the ancient Latinii passed over the southern parts of Scythia, occupied for some time the plains and mountains of Galitia, Silezia, Moravia and Bohemia, then continued to advance towards the western parts. From these barbarian Latinii derives the name of the Lechii (Polonii), as well as various topical names of ethnic origin, which we find scattered through those lands, under the forms Latten, Leiten, Lety, Liten, Ladzin, Letow, Litow, etc.

 

Finally, a third branch of the great migration current of the barbarian Latinii passed over the eastern parts of Dacia towards the Balkan peninsula, and occupied for some time the regions from the lower Danube, especially the northern parts of lower and upper Mesia.

Their last national king in those times was, as Greek traditions tell us, Telephus, also called Latinus (Jornandes, c. 9; Suidas, see Latinoi).

These Latinii from the north of Thrace have with Homer the name Abii; in the traditions of the Romanian people they figure as “Latini de cei betrani” (Corcea, Balade, h.81 / TN – Latini of the old ones), or as simply Latini in the traditions of the Serbs and the Bulgarians (Kanitz, Reise in Sud-Serbien und Nord-Bulgarien, p. 33).

 

After a certain time, a part of these barbarian Latinii from the lower Danube continued their migration towards west. The causes are not known. Some tribes crossed the Alps (to this current of migration belong the Latinii from Switzerland) into the Italic peninsula, where after prolonged battles with various Arimic nations, which had occupied the upper parts of Italy, settled definitively in Latium (Prisci Latini, Latini veteres, Albenses populi).

 

These ancient Latinii figure in Romanian epic poems as a northern people, from the “edges of the seas”. They are shown with gigantic bodily shapes, with a big head, wide forehead and chest, big eyes, long, thick arms and legs (Hasdeu, Col. lui Traian, 1882, p. 620), and in the traditions of the populations from the Balkan peninsula they appear as a generation of giants.

Virgil presents in a similar way the Latinii from ancient Latium. They had a larger stature than the other people, “immani corpore”, and their youths were characterized by wearing a blond beard (Aen. X. 312, 324; VIII, 330).

 

The dialect of these barbarian Latinii had stayed closer to its origin, in regard to the system of its consonants, as well as the form of its terminations. The idiom of the ancient Latinii was sweeter, more harmonious, but did not have the same quick movement in its circulation, and the same precision in the expressing of thoughts which the Arimic dialect had.

As results from the traces which have been preserved to this day in the national language of the Litvanii, the barbarian Latinii had masculine terminations in as and us, and often used s instead of r. As examples we shall quote here the following words from the Litvan language: alejus, oleum; angelos, angelus; ausis, auris; ausza, aurora; devas, deus; drasus, trux; grazus, pulcher; jaunas, juvenis; laukas, campus, locus; macnus, potens, fortis; medus, mel; midus, medus; muras, murus; pirmas, primus; senas, senex; vynas, vinum; vyras, vir (Schleicher, Litauische Grammatik, 1856).

II.

 

The second dialect of the Pelasgian language was the Arimic, which we call prisc Roman.

To the family of the Arimii belonged the inhabitants of the north of the lower Istru, ‘Arimoi, as Homer and Hesiodus called them; the Scythii, previously called Aramaei; the ancient inhabitants of barbarian Germania, the Herminonii and Alamannii; the Aremoricii from Aremorica or Aquitania and the north-western corner of Galitia; the Volcae Arecomicii from between the Pyrenees and the Rhodan; the older populations of Italy, and finally the Turditanii, Tarraconii and Lusitanii from Hispania.

 

The Arimii differed from the Latins by their physical type and by their livelier temperament. The Arimii had a darker hair and skin color, and were not as tall of stature as the Latinii. They were more energetic in their actions, more used with weapons, and with more advanced political ideas.

The separation of the Pelasgian nation in two large ethnic families had been also known to the ancients. According to Hesiodus (Theog. v. 1011 seqq), the genealogy of the Latinii and Arimii was the following: Circe, the sister of king Aietes of Colchis, had two sons with Ulysses, Agrius (Rusticus, Teranul, TN – the peasant), called Romanus by Plutarc, and Latinus. These two names represented two large families and two main dialects of the same nation.

 

The characteristic particularities of the Arimic dialect were especially the following:

1. An A was added to the beginning of a number of words, especially those which began with R.

2. The endings of words were shortened, leaving out the final consonants m and s, sometime also the preceding vowel u.

3. The final syllable re was eliminated from the infinitive of verbs.

4. Finally, the Arimii used the letter R a lot in their words.

 

We give the following examples about the adding of A at the beginning of words:

- Ethnic names: Arimi with Homer and Hesiodus; Aramaei (Scythi); Alamani or Aramani, part of the ancient inhabitants of barbarian Germany, called also Arimani and Aremani in the upper parts of Italy, Aremori or Aremorici in Gallia; Archemorium and Archemonium, the name of a suburb of Rome; Ariminium, an ancient city of Umbria, today Rimini; Orchomenos (= Archomenos), two ancient cities, one in Beotia, the other in Arcadia; Ariman (Ahriman), Typhon’s co-name; Arimanius, an epithet of Mithra (Prometheus) and of Mars; Aremulus, an ancient king from Alba.

- Geographical names: Anigrus, river in the Peloponnesus; Asilba, castle in Thrace; Amurgos and Murgos, an island near the Hellespont; Asarath, river in Africa; Arius, the regions of India.

- We find the same addition of A in the language of the Aromanians of today, descendants of the ancient inhabitants of Thessaly, of the Epirus and of Macedonia.

We give the following examples: afiresc, Romanian firesc; agonesc, gonesc; alichesc, lipesc; alatrat, latrat; alaudat, laudat; areu, reutate, nenorocire; aricori, frig, recore; aris, ris; ariu, riu; Aroman, Roman; aros, rosu; arug, rug; aspart, spart; aumbra, umbra; avenat, venat. To which we also add the Thracian word ababa, baba, from the times of Maximinus.

- The same A has been also preserved in some Romanian words from the Carpathians and the lower Danube: abiruire, invingere; aboare, boare; abuba, buba, achindie, chindie; acioie, cioie; acufund, cufund; alatrat, latrat; alauta, lauta, Armanca, Romanca.

- In the Romagnol dialect from Italy: aglion, Italian leon; alor, lauro; amsure, misurare; aramse, ramassare; arcade, ricadere; arfat, rifatlo; arpos, riposo; arvena, ruina (Mattioli, Vocab. Romagnolo-italiano, Imola, 1879; Torquati, Origine della l. ital. p. 34, 45, 48).

 

Another particularity of the barbarian Arimic dialect was the shortening of the endings, especially the omitting of final consonants m and s.

The consonant m at the end of the words, as Quintilianus tells us, was a letter which in the Latin language too “was very little pronounced” (Inst. Ix. 4; XII. 10), meaning a silent sound.

As for the final s, Cicero writes: “In ancient times, omitting the s of the final syllable was considered an elegant mode of speech, today though such a speech is for us rustic, ordinary (Orat. c. 48). And the whole final syllable of the words is often omitted. To this mode of speech refer the words of Quintilianus: curabit magister ne extremae syllabae inercidant (Inst. XI. 3; Cicero, Orat. c. 12).

- In the Romagnol dialect from Italy, in which have been preserved to this day many particularities of the ancient Arimic dialect, neither final o, nor u exists.

As example: an, Italian anno; anzel, angelo; bon, buono; braz, braccio; camp, campo; car, caro; corv, corvo; fer, ferro; fiol, figlio; fom, fumo; fus, fuso; mort, morto; om, uomo; ont, unto; orb, orbo; oss, osso; ors, orso; prez, prezzo (Mattioli, Voc. Romagnolo-italiano, 1879).

- The same shortening of the endings is also present in the Romanian language, in the Armerine dialect as well as in various words which had once belonged to the local “Roman” language of Gallia: Rom. an, Mrom. an, Arm. an, Prov. an, Fr. an; Rom. brat, Mrom. b’rat, Istr. brat, Arm. brazz; Rom. camp, Picard and Prov. camp.

 

We arrive now to the elimination of the final syllable re from the infinitives of verbs.

In the Romanian language, the infinitives have two forms, one with re and the other without:

a cantare” and “a canta”, “a vedere” and “a vede”, etc.(TN – today there is only the second form).

On the territory of Italy of today, the form of the short infinitive (without re) is found in the Piemontes, Driulan, Romagnol and Armerine dialects.

- Piemontes, with three conjugations: ame, Ital. amare; vede, vedere; cusi, cucire.

- Friulan; ama, Ital. amare; teme, temere; sinti, sentire.

- Romagnol: ame, Ital. amare; vde, vedere, cusi, cucire.

- Armerine: are, Romanian ara.

In fact, a general use of eliminating re from the infinitives of verbs has existed until late on the territory of Italy, an important linguistic phenomenon, observed by the distinguished literati G. Torquati on the base of the Italian folk poetry (Origine d. lingua italiana, p. 25).

This shortened form of the infinitives must have doubtless existed also in the popular or Arimic language of ancient Italy.

Quintilianus writes: The teacher must take care that the students he instructs also pronounce the last syllables of the words “Curabit magister ne extemae syllabae intercidant” (Inst. XI. 3).

This mode of speaking was of barbarian origin. “The barbarians” writes Isidorus (Orig. I. 31) “do not pronounce the Latin words in their entirety”.

 

Another particularity, characteristic of the ancient Arimic dialect, was the frequent use made of the resounding letter r. This letter was often used instead of the consonants d, l, n and s.

In the present study though, we shall speak only about the rotacism of n, which had played once a very significant role, not only in the spoken language, but also in the literary church language of the Romanian people.

About the replacing of n with r in the Arimic dialect of the Pelasgians we have some examples even from the Homeric times.

Gargaros is called in the Iliad the highest peak of Ida mountain, but its original form was Gargan-us. The word Tartaros in the times of the theogony had the meaning of “pater” (Titan), Romanian tatan, in church books tatanru and tataru. From the same form derives Teutarus, the name of a Scythian, contemporary with Hercules.

The Getae from the lower Danube especially, used the letter r a lot in their speech.

The poet Ovid called the language of the Getae: vox fera, vox ferina, Geticus murmur, Barbara verba, rotacised words with which he characterized in an indirect way the rough and resounding dialect of the Getae.

- The changing of n into r in the national language of the Getae is especially present in names of localities on the Danube, as well as from the eastern and northern parts of Dacia, like: Laedenata and Laederata, near Viminatium in lower Mesia (Not.); Ratiaria and Ratiarna (Ptol); Durostonum and Durostorum (Ptol.), Durostona with Jornandes; Dinigothia and Dirigothia near the mouths of Siret (Not., Tab.); Noviodunum and Noviodurum (Itin.); Carodunum and Carodurum (Ptol.), Ermerium and Urgum, two localities on the northern parts of Dacia, names which correspond to the forms Armerium and Armenium, and Ung, today a city and county near Maramures.

-  On the territory of the Scythians: Achani and Acharni, name of people (Steph. Byz.); Arima, in the language of the Scythians meant “one”, a word in which r represented the original sound n.

- In Pannonia, the same oscillation between the sounds n and r is found in the names of a number of localities: Vindomana and Vindomara (Itin., Not.); Bononia and Bonoria; Carnunto and Carunto (Itin.); Acimincum and Acimircum (Not.); Tauruno and Taururo (Not., Ptol.).

-  In Dalmatia: “u t pureremu” instead of “puneremus” (Isidorus, Orig. I. 31)

-  In Germania: Varduli instead of Vanduli, Veredi instead of Venedi (Arch.-ep. Mitlh. IX. 8).

- In Gallia: Verodunum and Veroduro, Augustodunum and Augustodurum (Itin., Tab.); Cenomani and Ceromani (Not.); Menapii and Merapes, Ursanienses and Ursarienses (Not.); Aremorica and Aremonica, Gaura mors instead of mons (Itin. Hier.).

- In Britannia: Cohors quarta Lergorum instead of Lingonum (Not.); Celunno and Cilurno (Rav., Not.); Brittonum and Brittorum; Vindogladia and Virdocladia (Itin.).

-  In Hispania: Urgi and Unci (Itin.).

- In the province Argos from the Peloponnesus, Lyncea and Lyrcea, the name of a village (Paus.).

-  In Asia Minor, in the regions inhabited by Pelasgians: Comagena and Comagera, Dardaxina and Dardaxira, Marandana and Marandara (Itin.).

-  In the Phrygian language chlouros, Greek chlounos, a type of gold (Hesych.).

Everywhere the letter r was a sound characteristic for the Pelasgian Arimic language (Henr. Steph. see Barbarophonos).

- In the Italic peninsula, exactly as in the other provinces inhabited by Pelasgians, the Arimic dialect was the most widely spread [1].

 

[1. Quintilianus, Inst. I. 5: Pollio deprehendet in Livio Patavinitatem, licet omnia Italica pro Romanis habeam. In the times of Ennius, the idiom spoken and written was called “Romana”, not “Latina”, Romane loqui (Charisius, Inst. Gramm. II; Keil, Gramm. Lat. I. 200)].

 

This dialect, beginning from the Alps and ending in Sicily, formed the national usual idiom, which the Roman literati called: lingua quotidiana or usualis, romana lingua, vox romani generis (Cicero, De orat. III. 12. 44), rustica romana lingua, rustica vox et agrestis (Ibid. III. 12), rustica asperitas (Suetonius, Gramm. c. 24), rusticus sermo, plebeius sermo, sermo vulgaris, usualis sermo, quotidianus sermo (quo cum amicis, conjugibus, liberis, servis loquamur), vetus lingua, sermo antiquus (Cicero, De orat. III. 11. 42), barbarus sermo, Latina pessima.

As for the purely Latin dialect in Italy, this has always been limited to the province of Latium.

The changing of n into r in the popular language of Italy can be followed back to the most ancient times of the Roman state. The following examples will clearly demonstrate this statement.

- Remoria, the name of the place on the Aventine where Remus wanted to build the citadel of Rome, according to Festus; Remonia with Plutarc, Remona with Ennius.

- Remores, the name of the people who had the same qualities as Remus, according to Aur. Victor. It is a rotacised form of Remones.

- Remuria, in Roman cult was the feast when offerings to the ancestors were made. The word is formed from “Remores”.

- Remurina, an ancient Roman divinity, probably the personification of the feast day “Remuria”.

- Archemorium and Archemonium, an ancient suburb of Rome.

- Crustumerium and Crustumini, Sabine city and people.

- Perpenna and Perpena, n. pr.

- In classical Latin language, carmen derives from canimen = car(i)men, from the verb cano, a canta (TN – to sing).

- According to Varro, the word moerus, mur (TN – wall), derived from moenus.

Assir in ancient Latin language meant “sanguen”, blood (Festus). The word is not Latin, but Arimic, with a pre-posed a, and n changed into r, like sangre in the Spanish language from sanguinem = sanguirem.

The ancients also said femur and femen, groma instead of gnoma, aeneus and aereus, siris and sirit instead of sinas, sinat (Livy, lib. I. 32), also sera = sinas in the song of the Arvali Brothers.

Populonia and Populoria was a maritime city of Etruria (Itin. Ant.). Egina and Egira were the names of an island between Italy and Sicily (Itin. Hier.; Livy, lib. I. 32).

The letter r, Plato writes, indicates movement and asperity. Because of this, the Greek authors called the use of this letter in speech schlerotes, asperitas (Cratylus, c. 41).

Certainly Cicero characterized the popular dialect of Italy as rustica asperitas for the same reasons.

In the poems of Virgil we find a number of examples in which he imitates the folk idiom, by repeating the letter r:

            Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro…

            Ergo aegre rastris terram rimantur (Georg. I. 494; III. 534)).

Aurunei, Rutuliuqe serunt et vomere duros

            Exercent collis atque horum asperrima pascunt (Aen. XI. 318).

 

Seneca writes (Epist. ad Lucill. 114): “The words of men were such as their lives were”.

This rotacised dialect had been preserved for a long time in the homes of Roman nobility.

The poet Persius tells us that at the doors of ancient Roman families still resounded in his times the doggish letter r (Sat. I. 109).

The Roman literati, pupils of a severe Latin-Greek school, had always a particular aversion of the sound r, because of which this consonant had been eliminated from a number of Latin words.

Examples: pejero = perjuro; crebesco = crebresco. Varro says “R exclusum propter levitatem (L. L. V, 133), meaning that the letter r had been excluded in order to ease pronunciation.

Reor”, says Quintilianus, is a horrible word (Inst. VIII. 30); and in another place he writes: instead of the letter r, with which Demosthenes had to struggle so much, the Greeks adopted the letter l, which are strong letters also in our language (Inst. I. 11).

 

We shall reproduce here a few examples from the Voronet Codex, written around the beginning of the 16th century: adura, aduna; arira, arina; betrarii, batranii; cunteri, conteni; curura, cununa; dumereca, dumineca; gerure, genune; giure, giune; irema, inima; iremire, inemile; lumira, lumina (in mierurata lui lumira); Luri, Luni; menciuri, minciuni; netirut, netinut; omeri, omeni; rugira, rugina; rusul = nusul, insul; spureti, spuneti; supureti, supuneti; striirii, strainii; turerecu, intunerec; urul, unul, etc.

This literary church language was called in the 18th century “pe Rumania”, meaning the Rumanian rustic or Arimic.

From this mode of speech, with n changed into r, have been preserved to this day in the Romanian language some ancient traces like: arin, anin; irima, irma, inima; marunt, Lat. minutum; musuroiu, musunoiu, rata and nata; rerunchi and renunchi, rencheza, necheza, Lat. hinnire; rendurea, rendunea; serin, senin; verin, venin.

This phonetic phenomenon appears especially as a characteristic particularity of the Romanian dialect of Istria, evident proof that at the time when the Romanian groups from Istria had migrated from the lower Danube (see Ch. XXVI.6), the rotacised dialect was almost generally spoken by the Romanian people from the lower Danube.

The origin of this idiom on the territory of Dacia predates Roman conquest. As we saw above, the changing of n into r existed in the barbarian language of the Pelasgians even in Homeric times, while in the Italic peninsula it existed even in the legendary times of the Roman state.

The substitution of the intervocalic n with r is therefore not a specific Romanian rotacism, or of the Romanian language from the Middle Age, as the literate Hasdeu believed, but is a phonetic particularity inherited from the ancient dialect of the Arimii.

Little by little though, the rotacism of n had disappeared almost completely not only in the western parts of Europe, but on the territory of Dacia too.

We ask now: how can be explained this linguistic phenomenon from a historical point of view?

Because in the life of mankind, nothing happens without some predetermined cause.

Our answer is that the Arimic dialect, or rotacised, must have been at some time strongly mixed with the not rotacised dialect, or the barbarian Latin.

This reestablishing of the original sound n was due not to a spontaneous revival of n, as Hasdeu believed, but to the influence of the great invasion of the Leuco – Arimanii or Abii, who had descended on Europe following the footsteps of the Arimic current.

From: http://www.pelasgians.bigpondhosting.com/website7/41_15.htm

The Latin language considered as a barbarian language

3 Comments

The same ideas about the Latin character of the barbarian language were held by the Greeks.

They called the Romans barbarians, not because they were inferior to the Geeks in civilization, but because they belonged by origin and language, to the family of the barbarian peoples.

“The Greeks”, writes Pliny, “call us barbarians also, and insult us with words much more disgusting than they do the Opicii” (XXIX. I. 14).

The Pope Nicolas I says the same in a letter addressed in 865ad to the Byzantine emperor Michail III, that the Greeks called the Latin language a barbarian and Scythian language (Du Cange, Gloss. Med. lat.; Jaffe, Regesta Pontif. Rom. p. 247).

In the history of Polybius, the Romans figure under the name barbarians (Hist. lib. IX. 38, 5, 7).

Dionysius of Halikarnassus calls the Sicilians a barbarian people, barbaroi Sicheloi (lib. II. 1), and according to Diodorus Siculus, the language of the ancient Sicilians was a barbarian language (lib. V. 6. 5).

Not only the Greeks, but also the Roman authors of classical times considered the popular or rustic Latin language as a barbarian language.

Plautus (2nd century ad) calls Nevius “poetam barbarum” (Mil. Glor. II. 258) and uses the words Barbaria for Italy and barbaricae urbes for the Italians.

Quintilianus writes: “it happens often that the mob in the theaters and circuses exclaim in the barbarian language” Inst. I. 6), meaning rustic. Cicero also calls barbaries domestica the rustic language spoken in the houses of the Roman citizens (Brutus, s. 74).

The citizens of Brundusium, writes Gellius, had brought from Rome a teacher of Latin language; but this one read Virgil in a barbarian and ignorant mode (Noct. Att. XVI. 6; Cicero, Tusc. II. 4).

The barbarian language had therefore, according to Roman authors, the characteristics of the vulgar or rustic Latin language.

Gellius also states that the barbarian language was the same as the rustic Latin language. “When we say today”, writes he, “that somebody speaks a barbarian language, it is nothing else but the rustic language” (XIII. 6).

From: http://www.pelasgians.bigpondhosting.com/website7/41_04.htm

The ethnic character of the ancient barbarian language

Leave a comment

We arrive now to one of the most important matters regarding the language of the Pelasgians: which were the characteristics of the barbarian language, according to the ideas of the ancients?

The Roman authors had begun, even from the times of Cicero, to make a more clear distinction between the barbarian language and the peregrine language.

The expressions barbare loqui and peregrinitas appear in Latin classical literature as two entirely different concepts.

According to Quintilianus (Inst. I. 5), the characteristics of the mode of barbarian speech were the following: to the Latin words were added, or were omitted, some letters or syllables, or, finally, one letter was changed with another, or was moved from its place.

According to Isidorus of Seville, it was called barbarism the mode of speaking of the barbarian tribes, which did not know how to pronounce the Latin words in their entirety. Barbarisms were the corrupt Latin words, either because of the letters they contained, or of the sound with which were pronounced (Orig. I. 31. 1).

The words called “barbarian” by the Roman authors were therefore words of Latin origin, but in a longer or shorter form; sometimes with the letters dislocated, or pronounced with other sounds.

 

The Roman authors always considered as barbarian language the idioms of the populations of Pelasgian race from Africa, Hispania, Gallia, northern Germania, Rhetia, Dacia, southern Sarmatia, Thracia, Macedonia, Mesia and Illyricum, in which were also included Pannonia, Noricum and Vindelicia.

Even in the times of Ennius (239-169bc), the national language of the populations from the Iberian peninsula was considered as a corrupt Roman language – Hispane non Romane loqui (Charisius, Inst. Gramm. II, in Keil, Gr. Lat. I. 200) – although only during those times had the Romans entered for the first time with their legions in the Pyrenean peninsula.

The Galii were also considered barbarians (Justin. I. XLIII. 4), and their language, “Gallicus sermo”, was regarded as a Roman rustic language (Hieronymus, Epist. ad Rusticum).

A Latin barbarian language was also spoken In the northern parts of Germany.

Drus, the adoptive son of Augustus, Suetonius tells us, had wandered with the Roman legions through almost the whole of Germany, and he had not ceased to chase the Germans until the moment when a barbarian woman appeared before him, and speaking to him in the Latin language, advised him to stop and turn back (Claud. I).

The Sarmatians formed one of the most “barbarian” peoples.

The Mesii were called “Barbari Barbarorum”.

The Bessii, whom Florus calls “Thracum maximus populus”, had the same military ensigns and the same customs as the Romans; but were regarded as “Barbarians” and “barbarus populus”.

All these populations, as we shall see, had a national Latin barbarian language.

The Roman Senate, Cicero tells us (N. D. II. 4), often asked the soothsayers of the Barbarians to look into and to express an opinion, if the Roman consuls had performed the auspices conforming to the ancient religious prescriptions [1].

 

[1. The old meaning of the word barbaros cannot be explained in the Greek language. The origin of the word must be looked for in the barbarian language. In the beginning, this term seems to have been used by the Greeks only as a simple epithet characteristic for the pastoral tribes from the north of Hellada. The word barbaros, in the form transmitted by the Greek authors, is from the same root of the Latin barbatus, meaning “man who wears beard”.

The ancient Pelasgian tribes had a national custom, the origin of which is lost in the dark of times, to wear uncut beards, left flowing down, “promissa, prolixa barba”, as an external sign of personal dignity and valor. They were called barbaroi, because they wore long beards, as other tribes were called Chomatai, Comati, Capilati, with long tresses; pilophoroi, who wore caps; bracatae nationes, who wore long and wide trousers; Melanchleni, with black mantles, etc. Barba barbarice demissa was a characteristic expression during the empire (Capit. Ver.10).

 

Greek traditions show Typhon and the Giants with long and horrible beards, which fluttered in the air. Saturn appeared in ancient representations with a long beard falling downwards (barba prolixa). “Jovem semper barbatum” (Cicero, N. D. I. 30).  The same custom of wearing natural beards was also had by the ancient Romans (Livy, V. 41; Varro, R. R. II. 11; Pliny, VII. 59). Cicero mentions the horrible beards seen at the ancient statues and images, “illa horrida (barba), quam in statuis antiques et imaginibus videmus” (Cael. 14). Barbatus, with Cicero, means “man with big beard”, according to the ancient custom; “unum aliquem te ex barbatis illis, exemplum imperii veteris, imaginem antiquitatis” (Sext. 8). Ovid writes about the Getae that they did not cut either their hair, or their beard, “non coma, non ulla barba resecta” (Trist. V. 7). On the Column of Trajan, the Getae and the Dacians are represented with natural beards, the nobles as well as the peasant class.

 

In Romanian folk poems, the old heroes often bear their name by the beards that decorate their face, “Venerable White Beard” (TN – Barba Alba colilie), “Black Beard, whole mind” (TN – Barba Neagra, minte intreaga). The Romanian epic poems tell us about Novac the Old that “his beard beats his waist, and his hair beats his heels”, and that “his beard with his sash he tied”. Finally, we also note here that in mediaeval Latin language “barbaria” meant “barbitonsoris officina” (Du Cange)].

From: http://www.pelasgians.bigpondhosting.com/website7/41_03.htm

The Pelasgians spoke a barbarian language, according to Herodotus

Leave a comment

We find other historical notes about the ancient language the Pelasgians with Herodotus.

“Which language had the Pelasgians used”, writes he (lib. I. 57, 58), “I certainly cannot affirm; but if we were permitted to draw a conclusion about the Pelasgians who still exist today in the city Crestonia above the Tursenii (in the eastern part of Macedonia, near the sea), and who once dwelt in the region today called Thessaliotis … also, if we had in mind the language of the Pelasgians who had founded the cities Placia and Scylax of Hellespont, and who had previously dwelt together with the Athenians, then we could affirm that the Pelasgians had used a barbarian language …In regard of the nation of the Hellenes though, these had always used, ever since their beginning, the same language, but different from that of the Pelasgian nation …The Pelasgians themselves were a people of barbarian nationality”.

Herodotus speaks here, as we see, only about the Pelasgians who had once dwelt on the territory of Hellada, and about the colonies of these Pelasgians established on the northern shores of the Aegean Sea.

It results therefore, from the notes which we find with Homer and Herodotus, that the barbarian language spoken by the Pelasgians from the territory of Hellada, was an external language. The great mass of the nation of the Barbarians was formed by the Pelasgian populations from the north of Greece, but especially by those from the north of the lower Istru and the Black Sea.

The same ethnic and geographical name had been also adopted by the Romans.

In the first times of the Roman empire, under the name Barbaria, Barbaricum, Barbaricum solum and terra Barbarorum, was meant the vast territory of Europe from the north of Istru to the Ocean and to the frontiers of Asia.

Trajan, writes Sextus Rufus (Brev. c. 8), has conquered Dacia, which was situated on the land of Barbaria, and has made it into a province.

The entire vast lands of Scythia, comprised between the lower Danube and the Meotic Lake, was called, according to Isidorus, terra barbarica (Orig. XIV. 4. 3).

The eastern parts of Mesia are called by Ovid, barbariae loca and Barbara terra (Trist. V. 12, 55; III. 3, 46). With Ammianus, all the countries north of Pannonia figure under the name Barbarorum terrae, Barbaricum and Barbaria (lib. XVII. 12; Bocking, Notit. Dign. 91; II. 96).

From: http://www.pelasgians.bigpondhosting.com/website7/41_02.htm

The language of the Getae and the Dacians

8 Comments

The language of the Getae and the Dacians before the Roman conquest presents a particular importance for the history of the countries from the lower Danube.

We find most of the notes regarding the characteristics of the barbarian language spoken at the lower Danube in the poems of Ovid, written in his exile at Tomis.

In his “Epistulae ex Ponto” and “Tristia”, Ovid mentions often the mode of speaking of the Getae and the Sarmatians, a language which he had learned so well in 6 years that he often attributes himself even the title of a Dacian and Sarmatian poet.

“And neither you should wonder”, says he towards his friend Carus, “if you found errors in the poems which I compose, and which are almost the work of a Getic poet. And oh!, I am ashamed, but I wrote a poem in the Getic language, and I constructed in our meters the barbarian words; but you must congratulate me, they liked the poem and I began to make for myself the name of a poet, among these inhuman Getae. You shall maybe ask me, what subject have I treated. I sang praises to the emperor Augustus and good God has helped me again in this new venture. I have shown in these verses that the body of our emperor and father Augustus was been mortal, but that his divine essence has gone to the celestial abodes, and that his son (Tiberius), who has taken into his hands the running of the empire, although he has refused it a number of times, is like his father in virtues… After I read to the Getae this poem, written not in the language of my country, and I reached the last page, all of them moved their heads, their quivers full of arrows echoed, and a long sigh issued from their mouths; and one of them told me: “You, because you write these things about the emperor, you have to return to his empire” (Ex Ponto, I. IV. 13. v. 16-22).

In another elegy Ovid writes: “It seems to me that I myself have forgotten the Latin language and I have learned to speak like the Getae and the Sarmatians” (Trist. V. 12. v. 57 seqq).

And in another place: “Why should I take so much care to polish my verse? Should I fear maybe that it would not please the Getae? It is possible that I want too much, but I congratulate myself that in this land at the Istru, there is no bigger genius than me. In this land, where I shall spend my days, it is enough if I were considered a poet among the inhuman Getae” (Pont. I. 5. 62 seqq). “I myself, Roman poet, am forced to speak often in the Sarmatic mode. And I am ashamed to admit that through a long disuse the Latin words but barely come into my mind. I do not doubt that also in this letter not a few barbarian words have sneaked in. The guilt is not of the man, but of the place. But, so that I won’t lose entirely my use of the Latin language, and in order that my voice could utter the sounds of my mother language, I speak with myself and repeat the words which I had forgotten (Trist. V. 7. 55; III. 14. 47seqq).

The Getae, as Ovid tells us, had a great power of assimilation. The Greek element of Tomis had been almost completely absorbed in the great mass of the Getic people (Trist. V. 7. 51-52).

“If somebody”, writes Ovid in a letter, “had forced Homer to live in this country, I assure you that he would have also become a Get” (Pont. IV. 2. 21 – 22).

 As we see, there was a great similarity between the language of the Getae and the Latin language. The essence of both languages was common.

The language of the Getae was, according to Ovid, a barbarian language, but a Latin barbarian language. We saw above how he himself tells us that many barbarian words, Getic and Sarmatic, had sneaked in his Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto; that his Latin poems, written near the mouths of the Danube, were almost the work of a Getic poet; that in 6 years he had become so accustomed with this language that now Latin words came with difficulty in his mind; and finally, that he had even composed a longer poem (libellus) in the language of the Getae, with which he had made a name for himself among them.

The language of the Dacians had a Latin character also according to Horace, Ovid’s contemporary. In one of his odes, dedicated to Mecenas, he says the following:

“I, who am a child born of poor parents, and whom you Mecenas, honor with your love, I shall not die … In a short time, and even faster than Icarus, the son of Dedalus, I shall see the bellowing shores of the Bosporus, and like a fine singing bird I shall fly over the sandy desert of the Getulii and over the plains of the Hyperboreans. I shall be recognized by the inhabitants of Colchis and by the Dacians, who pretend that they do not fear our weapons, as well as the Gelonii from the extremities of Europe; I shall be taught by the clever Iberians, who drink water from the Rhodan” (Od. II. 20. v. 13 seqq).

We have here a list of the barbarian peoples who still spoke a rustic Latin language in the times of Augustus: the dwellers of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the Getullii, Hyerboreans, Colchii, Dacii, Galii from near the Rhodan and the Iberii from the western peninsula!

The plains of the Hyperboreans, mentioned by Horace in this ode, were the vast plains of the lower Danube. The poet Martial also places the Hyperboreans in Dacia. The Colchii, against who the Argonauts had come with war, dwelt, according to Ovid, in the northern parts of the lower Danube, near the foothills of the Carpathians. Beyond the Colchii, in today Transilvania, Horace mentions the Dacii(ans). The Dacians were considered therefore, in the times of Augustus, as a people speaking a Latin barbarian language.

A particular importance for the matter treated here, regarding the language of the Getae, is presented by two bas-reliefs from the Column of Trajan.

One of this presents a deputation of Dacian peasants (Comati), who, threatened by the legions of the powerful Roman empire, present themselves before the emperor, suing for peace. With the agitated gestures of their hands, and in the attitude of people who argue their innocence, they address directly to the emperor, without interpreters, and Trajan answers them also without interpreters (Froehner, La colonne Trajane, pl. 52-53).

A second relief shows the most important moment of the first war. Three kings of the Dacians, followed by a huge deputation (pilophores and comates) present themselves before the emperor in order to solemnly declare their submission. All of them lay down their weapons. Some kneel, stretching their hands towards the emperor, pleading for peace, others stand with their hands hold together in front of them, or at their back, in the mode in which prisoners of war are represented on antique monuments. This time, the column of Trajan presents again the Dacians addressing the emperor directly, without any interpreter (Ibid, I. pl. 102-104).

This latter scene is illustrated even clearer by the following passage from the history of Dio Cassius. After the ending of the first war, writes he, Trajan had sent a number of representatives of the Dacians to the Senate, to confirm the peace. “The ambassadors of Decebal were introduced to the Senate, where after they laid down their weapons, they hold together their hands in the way of the captives, spoke some pleading words, after which they accepted the peace and took their weapons from the ground” (lib. LXVIII. c. 8, 9).

The Dacian deputation has spoken therefore in front of the Roman Senate in the national language of the country, which certainly many of the senators understood, especially those who had occupied high positions in the peripheral provinces, and were used with the popular language. In fact, it cannot be admitted in any way, from the point of view of the public law, that the Roman Senate could have considered binding some promises of submission spoken in a language which they did not understand.

The language of the Getae had extended in the more ancient times over the entire eastern part of the Balkan peninsula, down to the Aegean Sea.

In Mesia, the fundamental stratum of the population was formed by the Getae, and their language dominated the entire lower Mesia (Ovid, Tris. III. 9. 3-4; Dio Cassius, lib. 41. 27).

Ovid called the whole western shore of the Black Sea, Geticum litus (Pont.lV. 4. 8; IV. 3. 61).

According to Herodotus, the Thracians were of the same nationality as the Getae (lib. IV); and according to Strabo, the language of the Thracians was identical with that of the Getae (Geogr. Lib. VII. 3. 10). As Capitolinus writes, Maximinus the old, born in a village close to Thrace and a shepherd in his childhood, wanting to take part in the military games, had addressed to the emperor Severus regarding this, speaking to him in a language more Thracian, than Latin (Miximini duo, c. 1).

 

From: http://www.pelasgians.bigpondhosting.com/website7/51_00.htm

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.